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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 11968x 58%
1942 1984 29661x 75%
1943 1987 21083x 69%
8 Eyes 1988 15960x 64%
Addams Family, The 1991 8825x 71%
Adventure Island 1986 44516x 83%
Adventure Island II 1991 21978x 76%
Adventure Island III 1992 12542x 76%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 24723x 72%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 9899x 66%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 11376x 77%
Alien 3 1992 5750x 53%
Altered Beast 1988 3770x 66%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 15439x 71%
Archon 1983 5715x 68%
Argus 1986 1342x 67%
Arkanoid 1986 47133x 75%
Arkanoid II 1987 7685x 78%
B-Wings 1984 11823x 72%
Back to the Future 1989 5919x 51%
Bad Dudes 1988 3185x 40%
Badminton 1988 1962x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 28696x 75%
Baseball 1983 38177x 75%
Baseball Stars 1989 6310x 81%
Batman 1989 24028x 82%
Battle Chess 1988 11455x 63%
Battle City 1985 241115x 80%
Battleship 1993 10716x 83%
Battletoads 1991 16182x 75%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 5934x 79%
Binary Land 1985 13501x 76%
Bionic Commando 1987 7318x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 25232x 90%
Blaster Master 1988 3893x 68%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 2937x 63%
Bomberman 1985 415224x 69%
Bomberman II 1991 106088x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 19257x 65%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 14766x 58%
Bubble Bobble 1986 21565x 81%
Bugs Bunny 1989 5361x 63%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 22654x 74%
BurgerTime 1982 16518x 66%
California Games 1987 5083x 51%
Castelian 1987 5858x 67%
Castlevania 1986 22352x 80%
Castlevania II 1987 17400x 74%
Castlevania III 1989 11194x 83%
Chack’n Pop 1983 7258x 63%
Challenger 1985 4318x 68%
Championship Bowling 1989 7209x 68%
Championship Karate 1992 501x 60%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 24263x 84%
Chase H.Q. 1988 14278x 66%
Chessmaster 1989 5114x 72%
Chiller 1986 3436x 65%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 32092x 78%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 16855x 79%
Choplifter 1982 5043x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 77074x 78%
City Connection 1985 8278x 83%
Cliffhanger 1993 2633x 50%
Clu Clu Land 1984 9207x 65%
Commando 1985 10191x 63%
Contra 1987 210369x 79%
Contra Force 1992 24456x 79%
Crazy Climber 1980 229x 35%
Crystalis 1990 10417x 64%
Defender II 1981 7217x 85%
Devil World 1984 5851x 63%
Die Hard 1991 4158x 88%
Dig Dug 1982 157509x 80%
Dig Dug II 1985 10925x 82%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 29615x 81%
Donkey Kong 1981 81907x 77%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 20464x 68%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 50110x 66%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 14699x 62%
Door Door 1985 5277x 80%
Double Dragon 1987 35508x 67%
Double Dragon II 1990 20467x 75%
Double Dragon III 1990 15470x 75%
Double Dribble 1987 21384x 77%
Dough Boy 1984 1578x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 490009x 71%
Dracula 1993 6337x 55%
Dragon Spirit 1987 1884x 95%
Dragon Warrior 1986 14773x 79%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 2352x 65%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 6386x 83%
Duck Tales 1989 22193x 58%
Elevator Action 1983 12612x 64%
Excitebike 1984 65032x 79%
Exerion 1983 6671x 75%
F-1 Race 1984 17461x 54%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 8955x 74%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 6269x 72%
Faxanadu 1987 5152x 73%
Felix the Cat 1992 48125x 74%
Field Combat 1985 7248x 75%
Final Fantasy 1987 18758x 80%
Final Fantasy II 1988 7046x 76%
Final Fantasy III 1990 4724x 88%
Final Lap 1987 2668x 40%
Flappy 1983 4153x 62%
Formation Z 1984 5980x 75%
Friday the 13th 1989 6085x 45%
Front Line 1982 9700x 85%
Galaga 1981 141532x 78%
Galaxian 1979 49727x 74%
Gauntlet 1985 1483x 64%
Gauntlet II 1986 2102x 59%
Geimos 1985 2476x 44%
Ghostbusters 1984 4345x 77%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 14408x 77%
Goal! 1988 10108x 85%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 8877x 76%
Golf 1984 9457x 61%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 5557x 68%
Gradius 1985 14775x 84%
Gradius II 1988 1704x 72%
Guerrilla War 1987 4578x 87%
Gun.Smoke 1987 9133x 76%
Gyromite 1985 6537x 81%
Gyruss 1983 7422x 77%
Home Alone 1991 6914x 89%
Honey Peach 1990 6328x 43%
Hot Slots 1991 12659x 45%
Hudson Hawk 1991 5080x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 47299x 77%
Ice Hockey 1988 17306x 74%
Igo 1987 4108x 64%
Ikari Warriors 1986 7842x 80%
Ikki 1985 5866x 67%
Indiana Jones 1987 4764x 64%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 6024x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 7742x 74%
Ironman 1989 3359x 30%
Jackal 1986 12077x 80%
Jaws 1987 9700x 65%
Journey to Silius 1990 4768x 67%
Joust 1982 8837x 58%
Jurassic Park 1993 10072x 72%
Kabuki 1990 1879x 62%
Karate Champ 1984 13572x 67%
Karateka 1984 14496x 62%
Kid Icarus 1986 18362x 79%
Kings of the Beach 1988 7110x 79%
King’s Quest V 1990 7029x 85%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 24873x 84%
Knight Move 1990 805x 60%
Krion Conquest 1990 4909x 90%
Kung Fu 2 1991 6606x 70%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 43890x 82%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 18791x 81%
Lemmings 1991 10642x 67%
Life Force 1986 7466x 78%
Lion King, The 1994 5189x 90%
Little Nemo 1990 5631x 86%
Lode Runner 1983 111420x 79%
Lunar Ball 1985 17199x 70%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 10616x 69%
Mach Rider 1985 9510x 62%
Macross 1985 6853x 68%
Magic Jewelry 1990 58082x 79%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 5872x 62%
Mahjong 1983 3848x 47%
Maniac Mansion 1987 7548x 65%
Mappy 1983 115818x 83%
Mappy Land 1986 12796x 81%
Marble Madness 1984 4756x 93%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 11321x 74%
Mario Bros. 1983 66584x 78%
Mario is Missing! 1992 6001x 77%
Mega Man 1987 26115x 77%
Mega Man 2 1988 21982x 79%
Mega Man 3 1990 14668x 77%
Mega Man 4 1991 9802x 76%
Mega Man 5 1992 8351x 69%
Mega Man 6 1993 8311x 69%
Metal Gear 1987 9177x 85%
Metroid 1986 19100x 82%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 6079x 83%
Micro Machines 1991 10057x 86%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 5765x 80%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 12459x 81%
Millipede 1982 6116x 63%
Mission: Impossible 1990 6024x 77%
Monopoly 1987 21880x 89%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 7014x 83%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 21753x 74%
NARC 1988 3010x 50%
New Zealand Story 1989 6338x 52%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 9139x 58%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 20058x 81%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 9224x 84%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 10402x 88%
Ninja-Kun 1984 5989x 71%
North & South 1989 8280x 85%
Nuts & Milk 1984 23728x 78%
Operation Wolf 1989 4713x 58%
Othello 1988 7771x 73%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 5527x 63%
Pac-Land 1985 21086x 66%
Pac-Man 1980 21409x 81%
Pac-Mania 1988 11759x 72%
Palamedes 1990 4444x 63%
Paperboy 1984 19164x 75%
Paperboy 2 1991 1789x 58%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 9238x 74%
Penguin Wars 1985 5975x 81%
Pinball 1984 14259x 68%
Pipe Mania 1988 5900x 92%
Pooyan 1982 18445x 82%
Popeye 1982 46693x 78%
Predator 1987 6151x 46%
Prince of Persia 1989 10918x 75%
Pro Wrestling 1986 7213x 56%
Punch-Out!! 1987 123092x 87%
Q*bert 1982 10840x 66%
Qix 1981 3020x 51%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 17026x 74%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 8341x 76%
Rad Racer 1987 13961x 68%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 3460x 66%
Rampage 1986 7048x 76%
Renegade 1986 8197x 83%
River City Ransom 1989 6908x 90%
Road Fighter 1984 67503x 73%
Road Runner 1985 6904x 74%
Robin Hood 1991 6740x 84%
RoboCop 1988 10850x 72%
RoboCop 2 1991 2979x 70%
RoboCop 3 1992 819x 75%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 1140x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 6697x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 3683x 76%
Rush’n Attack 1986 10992x 77%
Rygar 1986 7739x 66%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 179040x 71%
Section-Z 1985 4170x 73%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 2789x 85%
Shadowgate 1987 6459x 78%
Shanghai 1986 4834x 67%
Side Pocket 1987 4816x 40%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 14417x 72%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 6484x 42%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 3435x 62%
Skate or Die 1988 8090x 92%
Ski or Die 1990 8662x 78%
Sky Destroyer 1985 12129x 81%
Sky Kid 1985 2879x 56%
Slalom 1987 3150x 52%
Snow Brothers 1990 12117x 85%
Soccer 1985 11100x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 11371x 83%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 5055x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 13284x 65%
Space Invaders 1978 7064x 68%
Spelunker 1983 11334x 71%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 9742x 81%
Splatterhouse 1989 2971x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 8233x 84%
Spy vs Spy 1984 9024x 79%
Star Force 1984 17590x 83%
Star Luster 1985 2143x 58%
Star Soldier 1986 3238x 69%
Star Wars 1987 3971x 80%
Star Wars 1991 5892x 78%
StarTropics 1990 2697x 73%
Stinger 1987 4480x 85%
Strider 1989 4632x 89%
Super Arabian 1983 9404x 64%
Super C 1990 31275x 80%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 1139985x 76%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 154541x 67%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 389743x 71%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 108849x 71%
Super Pitfall 1987 9882x 60%
Super Robin Hood 1986 11187x 87%
Super Sprint 1986 8346x 66%
Sweet Home 1989 6572x 74%
Sword Master 1992 1948x 70%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 16026x 77%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 15725x 68%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 17072x 88%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 10564x 78%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 11908x 83%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 34514x 73%
Tennis 1983 29536x 83%
Terminator 2 1991 8058x 57%
Tetris 1986 22997x 72%
The Flintstones 1991 13784x 78%
The Goonies 1986 10544x 82%
The Jungle Book 1994 6318x 66%
The Karate Kid 1987 10451x 76%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 106638x 85%
The Terminator 1992 7607x 68%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 7569x 83%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 16822x 82%
Toobin’ 1988 1719x 70%
Track & Field 1984 36095x 74%
TwinBee 1985 14724x 87%
Urban Champion 1984 12921x 75%
Vindicators 1988 5427x 65%
Volguard II 1985 2577x 62%
Volleyball 1986 9135x 65%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 2305x 72%
Wacky Races 1992 2046x 53%
Wario’s Woods 1994 10586x 64%
Warpman 1985 6085x 64%
Wild Ball 1988 3088x 59%
Willow 1989 5608x 64%
Winter Games 1985 5299x 64%
Wizardry 1981 5348x 60%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 6396x 77%
Wrecking Crew 1985 17504x 74%
Xenophobe 1988 5392x 65%
Xevious 1982 11730x 78%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 26441x 71%
Yo! Noid 1990 7323x 62%
Zelda II 1987 23936x 70%
Zippy Race 1985 16019x 61%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master


 

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