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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 17961x 63%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 3089x 41%
1942 1984 45583x 71%
1943 1987 32968x 66%
20 in 1 1991 3268x 68%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 4777x 62%
31 in 1 1991 4300x 74%
42 in 1 1991 3818x 52%
64 in 1 1991 13098x 70%
8 Eyes 1988 22512x 62%
Addams Family, The 1991 13329x 72%
Adventure Island 1986 80796x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 34030x 74%
Adventure Island III 1992 23215x 73%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 36387x 69%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 15695x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 16753x 78%
Alien 3 1992 8253x 68%
Altered Beast 1988 6301x 65%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 22219x 69%
Archon 1983 9512x 67%
Argus 1986 4435x 52%
Arkanoid 1986 62693x 73%
Arkanoid II 1987 12018x 68%
B-Wings 1984 19367x 64%
Back to the Future 1989 10354x 48%
Bad Dudes 1988 8672x 59%
Badminton 1988 4258x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 43947x 74%
Baseball 1983 56051x 75%
Baseball Stars 1989 14149x 80%
Batman 1989 34021x 81%
Battle Chess 1988 16727x 61%
Battle City 1985 372963x 77%
Battleship 1993 15133x 78%
Battletoads 1991 26688x 75%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 9668x 73%
Binary Land 1985 18303x 67%
Bionic Commando 1987 10749x 72%
Blades of Steel 1988 35980x 86%
Blaster Master 1988 7742x 77%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 5980x 51%
Bomberman 1985 681605x 66%
Bomberman II 1991 131336x 72%
Boulder Dash 1984 27795x 67%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 22046x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 40911x 68%
Bugs Bunny 1989 13447x 66%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 33299x 69%
BurgerTime 1982 27678x 76%
California Games 1987 7403x 51%
Castelian 1987 8270x 62%
Castlequest 1985 2375x 71%
Castlevania 1986 34953x 82%
Castlevania II 1987 24510x 71%
Castlevania III 1989 16878x 83%
Chack’n Pop 1983 10115x 65%
Challenger 1985 6874x 59%
Championship Bowling 1989 10240x 67%
Championship Karate 1992 2424x 56%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 32685x 81%
Chase H.Q. 1988 21018x 68%
Chessmaster 1989 8019x 73%
Chiller 1986 6659x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 44469x 76%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 24210x 77%
Choplifter 1982 7586x 71%
Chubby Cherub 1985 1194x 75%
Circus Charlie 1984 127909x 73%
City Connection 1985 13780x 72%
Cliffhanger 1993 4741x 60%
Clu Clu Land 1984 13518x 71%
Commando 1985 14791x 62%
Contra 1987 367772x 74%
Contra Force 1992 35894x 74%
Crazy Climber 1980 2282x 35%
Crystalis 1990 15991x 66%
Darkwing Duck 1992 5276x 85%
Defender II 1981 10628x 85%
Devil World 1984 8755x 66%
Die Hard 1991 7755x 82%
Dig Dug 1982 275665x 76%
Dig Dug II 1985 18002x 82%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 37679x 77%
Donkey Kong 1981 127173x 75%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 28837x 71%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 73486x 65%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 20232x 68%
Door Door 1985 8371x 81%
Double Dragon 1987 51990x 64%
Double Dragon II 1990 34153x 73%
Double Dragon III 1990 23544x 73%
Double Dribble 1987 30868x 77%
Dough Boy 1984 3662x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 686518x 72%
Dracula 1993 9023x 60%
Dragon Spirit 1987 6232x 84%
Dragon Warrior 1986 22401x 83%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 5831x 68%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 468x 90%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 9952x 76%
Duck Tales 1989 34565x 62%
Elevator Action 1983 20500x 71%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 1629x 75%
Excitebike 1984 97976x 74%
Exerion 1983 9388x 65%
F-1 Race 1984 24277x 58%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 12626x 69%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 9610x 72%
Faxanadu 1987 7805x 70%
Felix the Cat 1992 68188x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 2566x 43%
Field Combat 1985 10157x 80%
Final Fantasy 1987 30940x 78%
Final Fantasy II 1988 12911x 76%
Final Fantasy III 1990 10337x 84%
Final Lap 1987 5473x 50%
Flappy 1983 8067x 73%
Formation Z 1984 8326x 76%
Friday the 13th 1989 20886x 54%
Front Line 1982 14603x 85%
Galaga 1981 220631x 76%
Galaxian 1979 84276x 72%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 1512x 65%
Gauntlet 1985 4324x 69%
Gauntlet II 1986 4847x 66%
Geimos 1985 4662x 40%
Ghostbusters 1984 7982x 65%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 22378x 67%
Goal! 1988 14949x 82%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 12185x 81%
Golf 1984 14558x 69%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 7780x 71%
Gradius 1985 23851x 78%
Gradius II 1988 4264x 76%
Guerrilla War 1987 9117x 87%
Gun.Smoke 1987 14918x 75%
Gyromite 1985 9071x 69%
Gyruss 1983 11195x 74%
Home Alone 1991 11055x 79%
Honey Peach 1990 10579x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 17908x 37%
Hudson Hawk 1991 7195x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 75049x 73%
Ice Hockey 1988 24454x 72%
Igo 1987 6100x 64%
Ikari Warriors 1986 12349x 68%
Ikki 1985 8234x 71%
Indiana Jones 1987 7217x 62%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 8548x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 11896x 76%
Ironman 1989 5916x 70%
Jackal 1986 19489x 79%
Jaws 1987 13806x 67%
Jeopardy! 1988 1876x 51%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 1540x 58%
Journey to Silius 1990 7161x 66%
Joust 1982 13917x 65%
Jurassic Park 1993 13881x 76%
Kabuki 1990 4023x 62%
Karate Champ 1984 19030x 65%
Karateka 1984 21665x 66%
Kid Icarus 1986 26104x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 10354x 79%
King’s Quest V 1990 9808x 81%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 38275x 80%
Knight Move 1990 2632x 60%
Knight Rider 1988 3922x 36%
Knightmare II 1987 1288x 73%
Krion Conquest 1990 7489x 88%
Kung Fu 2 1991 10560x 74%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 61618x 78%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 29045x 78%
Lemmings 1991 14145x 64%
Life Force 1986 11554x 77%
Lion King, The 1994 9624x 71%
Little Nemo 1990 9879x 90%
Lode Runner 1983 157373x 76%
Lunar Ball 1985 24410x 68%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 15370x 69%
Mach Rider 1985 13768x 57%
Macross 1985 9626x 67%
Magic Jewelry 1990 75489x 78%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 8320x 61%
Mahjong 1983 6553x 51%
Maniac Mansion 1987 10855x 67%
Mappy 1983 170671x 81%
Mappy Land 1986 17654x 81%
Marble Madness 1984 7063x 61%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 15819x 70%
Mario Bros. 1983 103279x 75%
Mario is Missing! 1992 10682x 70%
Mega Man 1987 46177x 74%
Mega Man 2 1988 35585x 76%
Mega Man 3 1990 21970x 79%
Mega Man 4 1991 15510x 71%
Mega Man 5 1992 13929x 74%
Mega Man 6 1993 14216x 72%
Metal Gear 1987 14740x 73%
Metroid 1986 30488x 80%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 10127x 67%
Micro Machines 1991 15352x 83%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 8518x 81%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 18188x 80%
Millipede 1982 8996x 62%
Mission: Impossible 1990 8947x 75%
Monopoly 1987 30493x 81%
Monster Party 1989 1720x 60%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 10339x 83%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 31844x 74%
NARC 1988 5630x 51%
New Zealand Story 1989 9162x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 13994x 60%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 38639x 81%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 13277x 81%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 15762x 88%
Ninja-Kun 1984 9454x 74%
North & South 1989 12067x 75%
Nuts & Milk 1984 31773x 75%
Operation Wolf 1989 7145x 62%
Othello 1988 10799x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 9647x 71%
Pac-Land 1985 31706x 68%
Pac-Man 1980 33481x 80%
Pac-Mania 1988 18620x 74%
Palamedes 1990 6783x 63%
Paperboy 1984 29860x 73%
Paperboy 2 1991 3954x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 12594x 72%
Penguin Wars 1985 8790x 79%
Pinball 1984 20628x 73%
Pipe Mania 1988 9960x 81%
Pooyan 1982 25387x 78%
Popeye 1982 64333x 77%
Predator 1987 8762x 46%
Prince of Persia 1989 15592x 68%
Pro Wrestling 1986 12129x 60%
Punch-Out!! 1987 202227x 85%
Q*bert 1982 16396x 67%
Qix 1981 5632x 58%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 27741x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 12384x 79%
Rad Racer 1987 20709x 71%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 5714x 67%
Rambo 1988 1762x 46%
Rampage 1986 12245x 74%
Renegade 1986 11293x 75%
River City Ransom 1989 11795x 84%
Road Fighter 1984 104869x 70%
Road Runner 1985 11534x 73%
Robin Hood 1991 9399x 82%
RoboCop 1988 15390x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 6220x 76%
RoboCop 3 1992 2997x 72%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 2875x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 9344x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 6397x 75%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 1931x 55%
Rush’n Attack 1986 16336x 74%
Rygar 1986 11606x 62%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 253053x 71%
Sasa 1984 2022x 63%
Section-Z 1985 6283x 76%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 6291x 70%
Shadowgate 1987 9285x 81%
Shanghai 1986 6895x 67%
Side Pocket 1987 7372x 40%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 20346x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 9988x 41%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 5972x 40%
Skate or Die 1988 12093x 86%
Ski or Die 1990 11738x 75%
Sky Destroyer 1985 16919x 78%
Sky Kid 1985 5494x 72%
Slalom 1987 5716x 60%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 2456x 82%
Snow Brothers 1990 20454x 80%
Soccer 1985 17269x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 18124x 82%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 7674x 80%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 20060x 62%
Space Invaders 1978 10241x 66%
Spelunker 1983 16653x 70%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 15087x 76%
Splatterhouse 1989 5384x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 12342x 80%
Spy vs Spy 1984 15263x 76%
Star Force 1984 25131x 82%
Star Luster 1985 4634x 58%
Star Soldier 1986 6192x 73%
Star Wars 1987 7414x 53%
Star Wars 1991 10074x 73%
StarTropics 1990 5155x 57%
Stinger 1987 6808x 85%
Strider 1989 7147x 81%
Super Arabian 1983 13581x 70%
Super C 1990 50429x 79%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2030703x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 239944x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 583033x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 171721x 69%
Super Pitfall 1987 14151x 55%
Super Robin Hood 1986 15082x 75%
Super Sprint 1986 12506x 69%
Sweet Home 1989 9331x 59%
Sword Master 1992 4295x 55%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 24171x 71%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 27261x 70%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 25889x 80%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 18833x 74%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 18826x 82%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 49809x 69%
Tennis 1983 44340x 77%
Terminator 2 1991 12006x 61%
Tetris 1989 14575x 86%
Tetris 1988 10214x 77%
Tetris 1986 33039x 68%
Tetris 2 1993 1724x 80%
The Black Onyx 1984 1429x 50%
The Flintstones 1991 19582x 71%
The Goonies 1986 18354x 74%
The Goonies II 1987 345x 85%
The Jungle Book 1994 9865x 58%
The Karate Kid 1987 14644x 74%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 197664x 80%
The Terminator 1992 11085x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 10931x 83%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 26883x 77%
Toobin’ 1988 3967x 85%
Total Recall 1990 2448x 80%
Track & Field 1984 54956x 71%
TwinBee 1985 22886x 76%
Urban Champion 1984 18971x 76%
Vindicators 1988 8001x 65%
Volguard II 1985 4472x 68%
Volleyball 1986 13462x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 6139x 72%
Wacky Races 1992 5259x 60%
Wario’s Woods 1994 16149x 67%
Warpman 1985 8507x 63%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 2186x 78%
Wild Ball 1988 11289x 48%
Willow 1989 8822x 68%
Winter Games 1985 8372x 60%
Wizardry 1981 7935x 54%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 9779x 83%
Wrecking Crew 1985 25086x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 7703x 65%
Xevious 1982 19192x 78%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 38572x 70%
Yo! Noid 1990 11007x 67%
Zelda II 1987 36367x 68%
Zippy Race 1985 22194x 58%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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