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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 9748x 59%
1942 1984 22828x 75%
1943 1987 16426x 69%
8 Eyes 1988 13049x 66%
Addams Family, The 1991 7079x 70%
Adventure Island 1986 30671x 87%
Adventure Island II 1991 16891x 75%
Adventure Island III 1992 7642x 77%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 19059x 73%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 7501x 63%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 8591x 73%
Alien 3 1992 4884x 53%
Altered Beast 1988 2786x 66%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 12296x 71%
Archon 1983 4249x 70%
Arkanoid 1986 39877x 74%
Arkanoid II 1987 5724x 84%
B-Wings 1984 8401x 63%
Back to the Future 1989 4031x 53%
Bad Dudes 1988 707x 49%
Badminton 1988 1132x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 22320x 77%
Baseball 1983 28238x 78%
Baseball Stars 1989 3341x 71%
Batman 1989 19016x 87%
Battle Chess 1988 9547x 63%
Battle City 1985 176571x 82%
Battleship 1993 8804x 86%
Battletoads 1991 12345x 75%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 4742x 78%
Binary Land 1985 11102x 77%
Bionic Commando 1987 6094x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 20656x 91%
Blaster Master 1988 2162x 90%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 1695x 63%
Bomberman 1985 288287x 69%
Bomberman II 1991 86834x 74%
Boulder Dash 1984 15798x 64%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 12067x 60%
Bubble Bobble 1986 15145x 79%
Bugs Bunny 1989 2627x 48%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 17167x 79%
BurgerTime 1982 12834x 62%
California Games 1987 4284x 51%
Castelian 1987 4945x 67%
Castlevania 1986 16498x 80%
Castlevania II 1987 13838x 72%
Castlevania III 1989 7975x 90%
Chack’n Pop 1983 6116x 69%
Challenger 1985 3269x 68%
Championship Bowling 1989 5938x 73%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 20020x 87%
Chase H.Q. 1988 11085x 69%
Chessmaster 1989 4321x 69%
Chiller 1986 2211x 70%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 26719x 79%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 13598x 79%
Choplifter 1982 4079x 71%
Circus Charlie 1984 55953x 82%
City Connection 1985 6107x 82%
Cliffhanger 1993 1774x 50%
Clu Clu Land 1984 7379x 63%
Commando 1985 8417x 63%
Contra 1987 152772x 80%
Contra Force 1992 19210x 87%
Crystalis 1990 7980x 62%
Defender II 1981 5930x 84%
Devil World 1984 4775x 61%
Die Hard 1991 2721x 83%
Dig Dug 1982 117588x 81%
Dig Dug II 1985 8558x 83%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 26204x 79%
Donkey Kong 1981 62021x 78%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 16244x 65%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 36681x 67%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 12040x 68%
Door Door 1985 3918x 80%
Double Dragon 1987 27181x 69%
Double Dragon II 1990 14394x 72%
Double Dragon III 1990 11861x 74%
Double Dribble 1987 16760x 76%
Dough Boy 1984 956x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 378683x 71%
Dracula 1993 5242x 55%
Dragon Warrior 1986 11526x 78%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 868x 30%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 5240x 82%
Duck Tales 1989 17427x 60%
Elevator Action 1983 9797x 68%
Excitebike 1984 46238x 79%
Exerion 1983 5368x 78%
F-1 Race 1984 13941x 55%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 7557x 76%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 5015x 63%
Faxanadu 1987 4166x 71%
Felix the Cat 1992 35854x 76%
Field Combat 1985 5928x 75%
Final Fantasy 1987 13469x 78%
Final Fantasy II 1988 5283x 78%
Final Fantasy III 1990 2673x 86%
Final Lap 1987 1474x 40%
Flappy 1983 2798x 67%
Formation Z 1984 4987x 75%
Friday the 13th 1989 3291x 36%
Front Line 1982 7801x 82%
Galaga 1981 96642x 78%
Galaxian 1979 34795x 73%
Gauntlet 1985 610x 61%
Gauntlet II 1986 1220x 56%
Geimos 1985 1629x 47%
Ghostbusters 1984 2839x 77%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 11433x 80%
Goal! 1988 7804x 87%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 7362x 75%
Golf 1984 7499x 66%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 4719x 67%
Gradius 1985 11496x 84%
Guerrilla War 1987 3183x 86%
Gun.Smoke 1987 7144x 74%
Gyromite 1985 5418x 81%
Gyruss 1983 5802x 78%
Home Alone 1991 5288x 84%
Honey Peach 1990 4655x 33%
Hot Slots 1991 10515x 49%
Hudson Hawk 1991 4305x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 36035x 76%
Ice Hockey 1988 14398x 74%
Igo 1987 3495x 62%
Ikari Warriors 1986 6571x 70%
Ikki 1985 4985x 65%
Indiana Jones 1987 3988x 64%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 5108x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 5812x 75%
Ironman 1989 2432x 30%
Jackal 1986 9241x 78%
Jaws 1987 7866x 64%
Journey to Silius 1990 3888x 64%
Joust 1982 7212x 57%
Jurassic Park 1993 8571x 72%
Kabuki 1990 1139x 58%
Karate Champ 1984 10906x 63%
Karateka 1984 11742x 62%
Kid Icarus 1986 14253x 77%
Kings of the Beach 1988 5820x 77%
King’s Quest V 1990 5643x 91%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 18859x 83%
Krion Conquest 1990 4004x 90%
Kung Fu 2 1991 4907x 70%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 36494x 84%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 14716x 80%
Lemmings 1991 9151x 64%
Life Force 1986 5997x 79%
Lion King, The 1994 3317x 85%
Little Nemo 1990 3643x 92%
Lode Runner 1983 86384x 81%
Lunar Ball 1985 13641x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 8542x 70%
Mach Rider 1985 7574x 63%
Macross 1985 5665x 74%
Magic Jewelry 1990 47131x 79%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 4928x 59%
Mahjong 1983 2858x 42%
Maniac Mansion 1987 6183x 67%
Mappy 1983 89403x 82%
Mappy Land 1986 10540x 83%
Marble Madness 1984 3652x 90%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 9026x 74%
Mario Bros. 1983 49208x 78%
Mario is Missing! 1992 4605x 70%
Mega Man 1987 17634x 77%
Mega Man 2 1988 16176x 79%
Mega Man 3 1990 10775x 78%
Mega Man 4 1991 7087x 84%
Mega Man 5 1992 5567x 66%
Mega Man 6 1993 5655x 67%
Metal Gear 1987 6912x 82%
Metroid 1986 14292x 83%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 4257x 80%
Micro Machines 1991 8252x 84%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 4784x 79%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 9435x 78%
Millipede 1982 5000x 61%
Mission: Impossible 1990 4970x 75%
Monopoly 1987 17566x 91%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 5686x 79%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 16940x 73%
NARC 1988 2054x 50%
New Zealand Story 1989 5370x 52%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 7378x 58%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 15831x 78%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 7562x 85%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 8083x 89%
Ninja-Kun 1984 4778x 70%
North & South 1989 6806x 84%
Nuts & Milk 1984 19380x 78%
Operation Wolf 1989 4006x 58%
Othello 1988 6461x 73%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 4034x 60%
Pac-Land 1985 16346x 66%
Pac-Man 1980 16351x 82%
Pac-Mania 1988 9005x 74%
Palamedes 1990 3577x 63%
Paperboy 1984 14967x 75%
Paperboy 2 1991 1062x 58%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 7715x 72%
Penguin Wars 1985 4988x 81%
Pinball 1984 11261x 66%
Pipe Mania 1988 4514x 92%
Pooyan 1982 15310x 81%
Popeye 1982 37063x 78%
Predator 1987 5121x 35%
Prince of Persia 1989 9094x 75%
Pro Wrestling 1986 5325x 49%
Punch-Out!! 1987 87187x 87%
Q*bert 1982 8805x 63%
Qix 1981 1989x 51%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 12305x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 6764x 71%
Rad Racer 1987 11113x 64%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 2607x 66%
Rampage 1986 5616x 75%
Renegade 1986 6663x 83%
River City Ransom 1989 5051x 88%
Road Fighter 1984 48317x 75%
Road Runner 1985 4986x 70%
Robin Hood 1991 5825x 84%
RoboCop 1988 9030x 70%
RoboCop 2 1991 1736x 75%
RoboCop 3 1992 250x 50%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 498x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 5266x 66%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 2856x 76%
Rush’n Attack 1986 8492x 75%
Rygar 1986 6130x 70%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 142313x 73%
Section-Z 1985 3318x 62%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 1581x 80%
Shadowgate 1987 5373x 76%
Shanghai 1986 4109x 67%
Side Pocket 1987 3874x 50%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 11671x 71%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 5009x 42%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 2285x 35%
Skate or Die 1988 6174x 91%
Ski or Die 1990 7569x 78%
Sky Destroyer 1985 10112x 83%
Sky Kid 1985 2047x 68%
Slalom 1987 2335x 52%
Snow Brothers 1990 8908x 91%
Soccer 1985 8559x 77%
Solomon’s Key 1986 8599x 84%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 4166x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 10312x 66%
Space Invaders 1978 5968x 73%
Spelunker 1983 8865x 69%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 7670x 82%
Splatterhouse 1989 2171x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 6572x 83%
Spy vs Spy 1984 7167x 80%
Star Force 1984 14102x 83%
Star Luster 1985 1199x 58%
Star Soldier 1986 2232x 63%
Star Wars 1987 2519x 82%
Star Wars 1991 4419x 73%
StarTropics 1990 1369x 90%
Stinger 1987 3759x 85%
Strider 1989 3821x 89%
Super Arabian 1983 7711x 64%
Super C 1990 23128x 83%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 768116x 77%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 112784x 68%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 298503x 71%
Super Mario Special 1986 77205x 71%
Super Pitfall 1987 8019x 61%
Super Robin Hood 1986 9523x 88%
Super Sprint 1986 6804x 65%
Sweet Home 1989 5573x 74%
Sword Master 1992 1233x 70%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 12952x 77%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 11317x 67%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 13364x 90%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 8314x 75%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 9374x 82%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 27289x 75%
Tennis 1983 20968x 82%
Terminator 2 1991 6652x 50%
Tetris 1986 16406x 68%
The Flintstones 1991 11436x 78%
The Goonies 1986 6721x 81%
The Jungle Book 1994 4951x 66%
The Karate Kid 1987 8773x 76%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 65702x 87%
The Terminator 1992 6113x 72%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 6080x 87%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 12156x 82%
Toobin’ 1988 968x 70%
Track & Field 1984 27664x 73%
TwinBee 1985 11102x 85%
Urban Champion 1984 10300x 78%
Vindicators 1988 4582x 65%
Volguard II 1985 1986x 62%
Volleyball 1986 7515x 65%
Wario’s Woods 1994 8404x 66%
Warpman 1985 5043x 61%
Willow 1989 4309x 61%
Winter Games 1985 4518x 71%
Wizardry 1981 4406x 60%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 5117x 79%
Wrecking Crew 1985 13492x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 4594x 65%
Xevious 1982 9361x 79%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 20846x 72%
Yo! Noid 1990 6091x 65%
Zelda II 1987 18240x 72%
Zippy Race 1985 13190x 63%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master


 

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