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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 10663x 59%
1942 1984 25551x 74%
1943 1987 18275x 70%
8 Eyes 1988 14197x 66%
Addams Family, The 1991 7756x 70%
Adventure Island 1986 36151x 84%
Adventure Island II 1991 19034x 77%
Adventure Island III 1992 9548x 79%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 21279x 71%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 8475x 64%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 9784x 75%
Alien 3 1992 5226x 53%
Altered Beast 1988 3147x 66%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 13565x 71%
Archon 1983 4799x 73%
Argus 1986 540x 70%
Arkanoid 1986 42690x 75%
Arkanoid II 1987 6530x 82%
B-Wings 1984 9767x 71%
Back to the Future 1989 4776x 53%
Bad Dudes 1988 1837x 42%
Badminton 1988 1432x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 24862x 76%
Baseball 1983 32444x 76%
Baseball Stars 1989 4652x 81%
Batman 1989 21096x 87%
Battle Chess 1988 10330x 64%
Battle City 1985 204648x 81%
Battleship 1993 9574x 86%
Battletoads 1991 13852x 75%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 5199x 78%
Binary Land 1985 12040x 74%
Bionic Commando 1987 6572x 68%
Blades of Steel 1988 22608x 90%
Blaster Master 1988 2946x 87%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 2188x 63%
Bomberman 1985 342824x 69%
Bomberman II 1991 95448x 74%
Boulder Dash 1984 16772x 64%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 13192x 59%
Bubble Bobble 1986 17756x 80%
Bugs Bunny 1989 3703x 53%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 19364x 80%
BurgerTime 1982 14285x 63%
California Games 1987 4576x 51%
Castelian 1987 5283x 67%
Castlevania 1986 18722x 81%
Castlevania II 1987 15235x 73%
Castlevania III 1989 9081x 88%
Chack’n Pop 1983 6567x 63%
Challenger 1985 3701x 68%
Championship Bowling 1989 6434x 69%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 21673x 86%
Chase H.Q. 1988 12353x 68%
Chessmaster 1989 4585x 69%
Chiller 1986 2660x 46%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 28932x 79%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 14915x 79%
Choplifter 1982 4455x 71%
Circus Charlie 1984 64633x 80%
City Connection 1985 6888x 84%
Cliffhanger 1993 2094x 50%
Clu Clu Land 1984 8112x 65%
Commando 1985 9099x 62%
Contra 1987 176325x 79%
Contra Force 1992 21502x 80%
Crystalis 1990 8940x 64%
Defender II 1981 6437x 85%
Devil World 1984 5230x 63%
Die Hard 1991 3269x 83%
Dig Dug 1982 136833x 79%
Dig Dug II 1985 9706x 82%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 27531x 80%
Donkey Kong 1981 71252x 78%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 18157x 68%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 43299x 66%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 13134x 66%
Door Door 1985 4398x 80%
Double Dragon 1987 30651x 68%
Double Dragon II 1990 16830x 76%
Double Dragon III 1990 13309x 78%
Double Dribble 1987 18698x 78%
Dough Boy 1984 1174x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 427682x 71%
Dracula 1993 5684x 55%
Dragon Spirit 1987 513x 93%
Dragon Warrior 1986 12867x 81%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 1490x 30%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 5677x 83%
Duck Tales 1989 19480x 57%
Elevator Action 1983 10970x 67%
Excitebike 1984 54450x 79%
Exerion 1983 5843x 82%
F-1 Race 1984 15335x 53%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 8114x 76%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 5512x 71%
Faxanadu 1987 4537x 71%
Felix the Cat 1992 41438x 76%
Field Combat 1985 6479x 75%
Final Fantasy 1987 15663x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 5958x 78%
Final Fantasy III 1990 3401x 86%
Final Lap 1987 1933x 40%
Flappy 1983 3298x 71%
Formation Z 1984 5381x 75%
Friday the 13th 1989 3956x 36%
Front Line 1982 8510x 82%
Galaga 1981 118998x 77%
Galaxian 1979 41379x 74%
Gauntlet 1985 892x 61%
Gauntlet II 1986 1594x 56%
Geimos 1985 1922x 47%
Ghostbusters 1984 3431x 77%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 12719x 79%
Goal! 1988 8665x 88%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 7918x 75%
Golf 1984 8280x 64%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 5051x 68%
Gradius 1985 12700x 83%
Gradius II 1988 402x 80%
Guerrilla War 1987 3693x 86%
Gun.Smoke 1987 7984x 73%
Gyromite 1985 5872x 81%
Gyruss 1983 6471x 77%
Home Alone 1991 5930x 88%
Honey Peach 1990 5375x 40%
Hot Slots 1991 11335x 48%
Hudson Hawk 1991 4591x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 40398x 77%
Ice Hockey 1988 15635x 73%
Igo 1987 3685x 62%
Ikari Warriors 1986 7061x 78%
Ikki 1985 5306x 65%
Indiana Jones 1987 4264x 64%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 5432x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 6568x 74%
Ironman 1989 2782x 30%
Jackal 1986 10268x 79%
Jaws 1987 8505x 65%
Journey to Silius 1990 4209x 65%
Joust 1982 7880x 60%
Jurassic Park 1993 9154x 72%
Kabuki 1990 1440x 62%
Karate Champ 1984 12057x 64%
Karateka 1984 12862x 60%
Kid Icarus 1986 15981x 78%
Kings of the Beach 1988 6294x 77%
King’s Quest V 1990 6187x 91%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 21290x 84%
Knight Move 1990 439x 40%
Krion Conquest 1990 4340x 90%
Kung Fu 2 1991 5549x 70%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 39598x 83%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 16285x 80%
Lemmings 1991 9692x 64%
Life Force 1986 6616x 80%
Lion King, The 1994 3922x 90%
Little Nemo 1990 4414x 94%
Lode Runner 1983 97268x 80%
Lunar Ball 1985 14981x 68%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 9403x 68%
Mach Rider 1985 8350x 63%
Macross 1985 6130x 71%
Magic Jewelry 1990 51839x 79%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 5282x 62%
Mahjong 1983 3223x 42%
Maniac Mansion 1987 6685x 65%
Mappy 1983 101542x 83%
Mappy Land 1986 11466x 83%
Marble Madness 1984 3964x 90%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 9981x 71%
Mario Bros. 1983 56890x 77%
Mario is Missing! 1992 5133x 70%
Mega Man 1987 21171x 78%
Mega Man 2 1988 18685x 79%
Mega Man 3 1990 12553x 79%
Mega Man 4 1991 8336x 83%
Mega Man 5 1992 6767x 61%
Mega Man 6 1993 6822x 67%
Metal Gear 1987 7785x 84%
Metroid 1986 16304x 83%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 4910x 80%
Micro Machines 1991 8982x 84%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 5137x 79%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 10591x 79%
Millipede 1982 5443x 63%
Mission: Impossible 1990 5374x 77%
Monopoly 1987 19550x 90%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 6202x 80%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 19144x 70%
NARC 1988 2394x 50%
New Zealand Story 1989 5716x 52%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 7998x 58%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 17629x 79%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 8205x 86%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 9094x 91%
Ninja-Kun 1984 5194x 70%
North & South 1989 7472x 84%
Nuts & Milk 1984 21258x 78%
Operation Wolf 1989 4276x 58%
Othello 1988 7087x 73%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 4612x 61%
Pac-Land 1985 18350x 66%
Pac-Man 1980 18372x 82%
Pac-Mania 1988 10134x 73%
Palamedes 1990 3900x 63%
Paperboy 1984 16749x 75%
Paperboy 2 1991 1307x 58%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 8329x 72%
Penguin Wars 1985 5330x 83%
Pinball 1984 12490x 68%
Pipe Mania 1988 5052x 92%
Pooyan 1982 16532x 82%
Popeye 1982 41306x 79%
Predator 1987 5522x 41%
Prince of Persia 1989 9843x 75%
Pro Wrestling 1986 6027x 56%
Punch-Out!! 1987 103960x 87%
Q*bert 1982 9631x 65%
Qix 1981 2367x 51%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 14156x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 7398x 73%
Rad Racer 1987 12305x 67%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 2899x 66%
Rampage 1986 6234x 75%
Renegade 1986 7273x 83%
River City Ransom 1989 5823x 90%
Road Fighter 1984 56322x 73%
Road Runner 1985 5802x 73%
Robin Hood 1991 6197x 84%
RoboCop 1988 9749x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 2205x 79%
RoboCop 3 1992 475x 50%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 733x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 5820x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 3169x 76%
Rush’n Attack 1986 9390x 77%
Rygar 1986 6823x 66%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 158753x 72%
Section-Z 1985 3668x 73%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 2008x 80%
Shadowgate 1987 5808x 76%
Shanghai 1986 4373x 67%
Side Pocket 1987 4192x 40%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 12821x 72%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 5570x 42%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 2771x 62%
Skate or Die 1988 6900x 91%
Ski or Die 1990 8021x 78%
Sky Destroyer 1985 10862x 83%
Sky Kid 1985 2363x 68%
Slalom 1987 2663x 52%
Snow Brothers 1990 10213x 89%
Soccer 1985 9564x 76%
Solomon’s Key 1986 9702x 84%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 4495x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 11463x 63%
Space Invaders 1978 6398x 68%
Spelunker 1983 9839x 70%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 8406x 82%
Splatterhouse 1989 2483x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 7206x 83%
Spy vs Spy 1984 7880x 80%
Star Force 1984 15399x 83%
Star Luster 1985 1573x 58%
Star Soldier 1986 2618x 66%
Star Wars 1987 3139x 78%
Star Wars 1991 5036x 75%
StarTropics 1990 1929x 93%
Stinger 1987 4028x 85%
Strider 1989 4119x 89%
Super Arabian 1983 8394x 64%
Super C 1990 26934x 82%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 936042x 77%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 131977x 68%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 340347x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 91011x 71%
Super Pitfall 1987 8757x 60%
Super Robin Hood 1986 10127x 88%
Super Sprint 1986 7487x 66%
Sweet Home 1989 5941x 74%
Sword Master 1992 1486x 70%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 14185x 74%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 13087x 68%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 14855x 88%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 9340x 76%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 10486x 82%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 30383x 76%
Tennis 1983 24160x 85%
Terminator 2 1991 7173x 50%
Tetris 1986 19230x 74%
The Flintstones 1991 12318x 77%
The Goonies 1986 8099x 77%
The Jungle Book 1994 5458x 66%
The Karate Kid 1987 9347x 74%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 84960x 86%
The Terminator 1992 6746x 68%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 6763x 83%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 14098x 79%
Toobin’ 1988 1271x 70%
Track & Field 1984 31070x 74%
TwinBee 1985 12428x 85%
Urban Champion 1984 11389x 74%
Vindicators 1988 4896x 65%
Volguard II 1985 2206x 62%
Volleyball 1986 8066x 65%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 1260x 53%
Wario’s Woods 1994 9346x 66%
Warpman 1985 5461x 64%
Wild Ball 1988 1155x 70%
Willow 1989 4846x 64%
Winter Games 1985 4834x 71%
Wizardry 1981 4772x 60%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 5583x 76%
Wrecking Crew 1985 14977x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 4893x 65%
Xevious 1982 10318x 79%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 23089x 72%
Yo! Noid 1990 6614x 65%
Zelda II 1987 20789x 71%
Zippy Race 1985 14266x 61%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master


 

Text of the website RetroGames.cz is available under the Creative Commons 3.0 License.