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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 13231x 59%
1942 1984 32809x 74%
1943 1987 23386x 68%
8 Eyes 1988 17326x 65%
Addams Family, The 1991 9747x 71%
Adventure Island 1986 51250x 81%
Adventure Island II 1991 24409x 74%
Adventure Island III 1992 14641x 76%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 27028x 71%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 11061x 66%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 12503x 75%
Alien 3 1992 6247x 53%
Altered Beast 1988 4324x 66%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 16776x 72%
Archon 1983 6436x 64%
Argus 1986 1962x 67%
Arkanoid 1986 50386x 75%
Arkanoid II 1987 8551x 78%
B-Wings 1984 13464x 68%
Back to the Future 1989 6851x 51%
Bad Dudes 1988 4384x 43%
Badminton 1988 2423x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 31913x 75%
Baseball 1983 42655x 75%
Baseball Stars 1989 7786x 85%
Batman 1989 26327x 81%
Battle Chess 1988 12453x 61%
Battle City 1985 269659x 80%
Battleship 1993 11648x 85%
Battletoads 1991 18100x 74%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 6558x 77%
Binary Land 1985 14434x 78%
Bionic Commando 1987 7937x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 27422x 89%
Blaster Master 1988 4619x 73%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 3577x 63%
Bomberman 1985 474930x 68%
Bomberman II 1991 113198x 74%
Boulder Dash 1984 20676x 64%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 16170x 56%
Bubble Bobble 1986 24841x 78%
Bugs Bunny 1989 6921x 66%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 24946x 75%
BurgerTime 1982 18398x 70%
California Games 1987 5556x 51%
Castelian 1987 6347x 67%
Castlevania 1986 25019x 82%
Castlevania II 1987 19035x 71%
Castlevania III 1989 12452x 81%
Chack’n Pop 1983 7777x 63%
Challenger 1985 4873x 68%
Championship Bowling 1989 7764x 68%
Championship Karate 1992 932x 60%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 26132x 83%
Chase H.Q. 1988 15705x 66%
Chessmaster 1989 5639x 75%
Chiller 1986 4102x 62%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 34262x 77%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 18280x 79%
Choplifter 1982 5507x 69%
Circus Charlie 1984 87967x 77%
City Connection 1985 9254x 84%
Cliffhanger 1993 3038x 50%
Clu Clu Land 1984 10069x 68%
Commando 1985 11160x 61%
Contra 1987 238886x 79%
Contra Force 1992 26853x 78%
Crazy Climber 1980 610x 35%
Crystalis 1990 11458x 64%
Darkwing Duck 1992 1743x 79%
Defender II 1981 7831x 85%
Devil World 1984 6472x 63%
Die Hard 1991 4923x 88%
Dig Dug 1982 177786x 79%
Dig Dug II 1985 12249x 84%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 31446x 80%
Donkey Kong 1981 91359x 78%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 22379x 68%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 55606x 66%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 15972x 67%
Door Door 1985 5979x 81%
Double Dragon 1987 39039x 69%
Double Dragon II 1990 23384x 78%
Double Dragon III 1990 17204x 75%
Double Dribble 1987 23241x 78%
Dough Boy 1984 1959x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 535637x 71%
Dracula 1993 6897x 55%
Dragon Spirit 1987 3660x 88%
Dragon Warrior 1986 16440x 80%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 3067x 65%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 7034x 78%
Duck Tales 1989 24976x 60%
Elevator Action 1983 14129x 67%
Excitebike 1984 72082x 80%
Exerion 1983 7262x 59%
F-1 Race 1984 19001x 56%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 9800x 73%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 6892x 71%
Faxanadu 1987 5704x 73%
Felix the Cat 1992 52592x 75%
Fester’s Quest 1989 790x 35%
Field Combat 1985 7886x 75%
Final Fantasy 1987 21187x 80%
Final Fantasy II 1988 8020x 75%
Final Fantasy III 1990 5744x 80%
Final Lap 1987 3220x 48%
Flappy 1983 4977x 63%
Formation Z 1984 6453x 75%
Friday the 13th 1989 8808x 45%
Front Line 1982 10643x 86%
Galaga 1981 159950x 78%
Galaxian 1979 57224x 73%
Gauntlet 1985 1985x 67%
Gauntlet II 1986 2583x 59%
Geimos 1985 2889x 44%
Ghostbusters 1984 5100x 70%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 15679x 75%
Goal! 1988 11133x 85%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 9572x 77%
Golf 1984 10608x 65%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 6002x 68%
Gradius 1985 16585x 78%
Gradius II 1988 2288x 74%
Guerrilla War 1987 5378x 89%
Gun.Smoke 1987 10216x 74%
Gyromite 1985 7050x 81%
Gyruss 1983 8157x 77%
Home Alone 1991 7804x 89%
Honey Peach 1990 7160x 48%
Hot Slots 1991 13811x 44%
Hudson Hawk 1991 5528x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 53330x 77%
Ice Hockey 1988 18711x 75%
Igo 1987 4437x 64%
Ikari Warriors 1986 8626x 81%
Ikki 1985 6354x 67%
Indiana Jones 1987 5247x 64%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 6604x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 8576x 74%
Ironman 1989 3882x 30%
Jackal 1986 13418x 81%
Jaws 1987 10554x 65%
Journey to Silius 1990 5271x 67%
Joust 1982 9726x 58%
Jurassic Park 1993 10803x 72%
Kabuki 1990 2296x 59%
Karate Champ 1984 14699x 68%
Karateka 1984 15832x 65%
Kid Icarus 1986 20068x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 7744x 79%
King’s Quest V 1990 7604x 85%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 27515x 82%
Knight Move 1990 1152x 60%
Knight Rider 1988 1412x 51%
Krion Conquest 1990 5407x 90%
Kung Fu 2 1991 7410x 70%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 47437x 82%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 20864x 80%
Lemmings 1991 11333x 67%
Life Force 1986 8289x 78%
Lion King, The 1994 6726x 83%
Little Nemo 1990 6390x 87%
Lode Runner 1983 121305x 79%
Lunar Ball 1985 18695x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 11574x 70%
Mach Rider 1985 10372x 52%
Macross 1985 7463x 66%
Magic Jewelry 1990 62220x 79%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 6354x 62%
Mahjong 1983 4424x 48%
Maniac Mansion 1987 8246x 63%
Mappy 1983 128065x 82%
Mappy Land 1986 13861x 82%
Marble Madness 1984 5302x 73%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 12252x 74%
Mario Bros. 1983 74386x 78%
Mario is Missing! 1992 7056x 77%
Mega Man 1987 30008x 76%
Mega Man 2 1988 24555x 80%
Mega Man 3 1990 16254x 77%
Mega Man 4 1991 11003x 77%
Mega Man 5 1992 9560x 71%
Mega Man 6 1993 9558x 71%
Metal Gear 1987 10361x 84%
Metroid 1986 21572x 80%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 6919x 71%
Micro Machines 1991 11046x 88%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 6284x 77%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 13573x 81%
Millipede 1982 6675x 67%
Mission: Impossible 1990 6630x 77%
Monopoly 1987 23759x 88%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 7628x 82%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 23928x 76%
NARC 1988 3517x 50%
New Zealand Story 1989 6861x 55%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 9985x 58%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 21994x 83%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 10041x 83%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 11369x 88%
Ninja-Kun 1984 6791x 73%
North & South 1989 9052x 85%
Nuts & Milk 1984 25474x 78%
Operation Wolf 1989 5170x 62%
Othello 1988 8384x 73%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 6340x 63%
Pac-Land 1985 23524x 66%
Pac-Man 1980 23965x 81%
Pac-Mania 1988 13215x 74%
Palamedes 1990 4887x 63%
Paperboy 1984 21341x 75%
Paperboy 2 1991 2231x 58%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 9971x 76%
Penguin Wars 1985 6606x 82%
Pinball 1984 15576x 68%
Pipe Mania 1988 6777x 92%
Pooyan 1982 19970x 82%
Popeye 1982 50892x 78%
Predator 1987 6676x 47%
Prince of Persia 1989 11830x 72%
Pro Wrestling 1986 8211x 59%
Punch-Out!! 1987 140119x 87%
Q*bert 1982 11905x 67%
Qix 1981 3557x 54%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 19369x 76%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 9154x 76%
Rad Racer 1987 15493x 68%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 3925x 66%
Rampage 1986 7777x 77%
Renegade 1986 8830x 83%
River City Ransom 1989 7736x 91%
Road Fighter 1984 75494x 72%
Road Runner 1985 7947x 78%
Robin Hood 1991 7211x 84%
RoboCop 1988 11784x 74%
RoboCop 2 1991 3597x 70%
RoboCop 3 1992 1174x 83%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 1495x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 7328x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 4155x 72%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 264x 55%
Rush’n Attack 1986 12115x 75%
Rygar 1986 8455x 66%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 194861x 71%
Sasa 1984 373x 58%
Section-Z 1985 4588x 73%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 3421x 80%
Shadowgate 1987 7002x 80%
Shanghai 1986 5199x 67%
Side Pocket 1987 5335x 35%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 15616x 71%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 7287x 43%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 3949x 62%
Skate or Die 1988 8961x 86%
Ski or Die 1990 9223x 78%
Sky Destroyer 1985 13143x 81%
Sky Kid 1985 3423x 63%
Slalom 1987 3617x 52%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 402x 80%
Snow Brothers 1990 13587x 84%
Soccer 1985 12457x 76%
Solomon’s Key 1986 12629x 85%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 5591x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 14796x 65%
Space Invaders 1978 7651x 63%
Spelunker 1983 12385x 72%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 10827x 82%
Splatterhouse 1989 3464x 90%
Spy Hunter 1983 9054x 84%
Spy vs Spy 1984 10054x 74%
Star Force 1984 19292x 82%
Star Luster 1985 2685x 58%
Star Soldier 1986 3759x 72%
Star Wars 1987 4608x 76%
Star Wars 1991 6595x 79%
StarTropics 1990 3202x 73%
Stinger 1987 4885x 85%
Strider 1989 5200x 89%
Super Arabian 1983 10250x 65%
Super C 1990 35213x 81%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 1319961x 75%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 172155x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 432020x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 122433x 71%
Super Pitfall 1987 10830x 58%
Super Robin Hood 1986 12085x 88%
Super Sprint 1986 9254x 70%
Sweet Home 1989 7150x 74%
Sword Master 1992 2426x 80%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 17450x 78%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 17968x 70%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 19056x 87%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 12139x 76%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 13335x 83%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 37492x 73%
Tennis 1983 33101x 83%
Terminator 2 1991 8821x 58%
Tetris 1989 175x 95%
Tetris 1988 60x 90%
Tetris 1986 26113x 71%
Tetris 2 1993 38x 60%
The Flintstones 1991 14986x 78%
The Goonies 1986 12392x 79%
The Jungle Book 1994 6981x 64%
The Karate Kid 1987 11235x 76%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 125115x 84%
The Terminator 1992 8366x 71%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 8280x 84%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 18874x 82%
Toobin’ 1988 2123x 70%
Track & Field 1984 39984x 74%
TwinBee 1985 16543x 87%
Urban Champion 1984 14425x 75%
Vindicators 1988 5960x 66%
Volguard II 1985 2936x 62%
Volleyball 1986 10029x 65%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 3156x 81%
Wacky Races 1992 2651x 53%
Wario’s Woods 1994 11627x 66%
Warpman 1985 6594x 64%
Wild Ball 1988 4728x 57%
Willow 1989 6267x 66%
Winter Games 1985 5727x 64%
Wizardry 1981 5863x 60%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 7031x 78%
Wrecking Crew 1985 19277x 72%
Xenophobe 1988 5846x 65%
Xevious 1982 13007x 78%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 29266x 71%
Yo! Noid 1990 7979x 63%
Zelda II 1987 26502x 70%
Zippy Race 1985 17257x 61%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master


 

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