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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 9098x 59%
1942 1984 20798x 74%
1943 1987 15182x 69%
8 Eyes 1988 12248x 65%
Addams Family, The 1991 6634x 67%
Adventure Island 1986 27299x 87%
Adventure Island II 1991 15350x 75%
Adventure Island III 1992 6490x 79%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 17591x 74%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 6900x 62%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 7954x 75%
Alien 3 1992 4636x 53%
Altered Beast 1988 2549x 66%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 11374x 71%
Archon 1983 3934x 70%
Arkanoid 1986 37656x 82%
Arkanoid II 1987 5166x 87%
B-Wings 1984 7516x 63%
Back to the Future 1989 3546x 50%
Badminton 1988 949x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 20549x 75%
Baseball 1983 25448x 77%
Baseball Stars 1989 2598x 80%
Batman 1989 17796x 87%
Battle Chess 1988 9062x 62%
Battle City 1985 158412x 82%
Battleship 1993 8277x 85%
Battletoads 1991 11370x 75%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 4444x 78%
Binary Land 1985 10507x 76%
Bionic Commando 1987 5747x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 19022x 93%
Blaster Master 1988 1634x 90%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 1321x 50%
Bomberman 1985 249914x 69%
Bomberman II 1991 81222x 74%
Boulder Dash 1984 15108x 66%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 11367x 63%
Bubble Bobble 1986 13419x 82%
Bugs Bunny 1989 1211x 58%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 15828x 79%
BurgerTime 1982 11829x 66%
California Games 1987 4087x 51%
Castelian 1987 4686x 67%
Castlevania 1986 14989x 79%
Castlevania II 1987 12914x 72%
Castlevania III 1989 7161x 90%
Chack’n Pop 1983 5750x 69%
Challenger 1985 2969x 68%
Championship Bowling 1989 5597x 73%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 18898x 87%
Chase H.Q. 1988 10171x 69%
Chessmaster 1989 4055x 64%
Chiller 1986 1966x 70%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 25291x 79%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 12633x 79%
Choplifter 1982 3873x 71%
Circus Charlie 1984 50187x 82%
City Connection 1985 5527x 83%
Cliffhanger 1993 1546x 50%
Clu Clu Land 1984 6961x 63%
Commando 1985 7964x 64%
Contra 1987 137558x 80%
Contra Force 1992 17820x 86%
Crystalis 1990 7403x 64%
Defender II 1981 5613x 84%
Devil World 1984 4475x 61%
Die Hard 1991 2420x 93%
Dig Dug 1982 104307x 81%
Dig Dug II 1985 7748x 83%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 25293x 79%
Donkey Kong 1981 55325x 78%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 14769x 69%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 31823x 68%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 11220x 65%
Door Door 1985 3505x 80%
Double Dragon 1987 24903x 69%
Double Dragon II 1990 12712x 73%
Double Dragon III 1990 10854x 75%
Double Dribble 1987 15369x 77%
Dough Boy 1984 758x 43%
Dr. Mario 1990 345445x 71%
Dracula 1993 4956x 55%
Dragon Warrior 1986 10532x 75%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 4937x 82%
Duck Tales 1989 15835x 61%
Elevator Action 1983 8998x 70%
Excitebike 1984 41877x 78%
Exerion 1983 5061x 78%
F-1 Race 1984 12993x 54%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 7199x 76%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 4728x 63%
Faxanadu 1987 3908x 71%
Felix the Cat 1992 32924x 78%
Field Combat 1985 5549x 75%
Final Fantasy 1987 12150x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 4791x 77%
Final Fantasy III 1990 2239x 86%
Final Lap 1987 1109x 40%
Flappy 1983 2450x 60%
Formation Z 1984 4710x 73%
Friday the 13th 1989 2909x 36%
Front Line 1982 7188x 82%
Galaga 1981 79742x 78%
Galaxian 1979 30471x 72%
Gauntlet 1985 394x 61%
Gauntlet II 1986 969x 60%
Geimos 1985 1399x 47%
Ghostbusters 1984 2464x 80%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 10759x 79%
Goal! 1988 7271x 87%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 7009x 73%
Golf 1984 6994x 66%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 4491x 67%
Gradius 1985 10594x 83%
Guerrilla War 1987 2880x 86%
Gun.Smoke 1987 6633x 74%
Gyromite 1985 5126x 81%
Gyruss 1983 5256x 82%
Home Alone 1991 4991x 84%
Honey Peach 1990 4123x 36%
Hot Slots 1991 9928x 48%
Hudson Hawk 1991 4105x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 32918x 74%
Ice Hockey 1988 13454x 73%
Igo 1987 3340x 62%
Ikari Warriors 1986 6253x 70%
Ikki 1985 4707x 65%
Indiana Jones 1987 3802x 62%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 4897x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 5365x 75%
Ironman 1989 2228x 30%
Jackal 1986 8608x 79%
Jaws 1987 7431x 64%
Journey to Silius 1990 3643x 64%
Joust 1982 6761x 57%
Jurassic Park 1993 8133x 72%
Kabuki 1990 911x 58%
Karate Champ 1984 10118x 61%
Karateka 1984 10988x 62%
Kid Icarus 1986 13180x 76%
Kings of the Beach 1988 5437x 77%
King’s Quest V 1990 5296x 91%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 17257x 82%
Krion Conquest 1990 3758x 90%
Kung Fu 2 1991 4476x 70%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 34228x 83%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 13591x 80%
Lemmings 1991 8792x 62%
Life Force 1986 5557x 78%
Lion King, The 1994 2994x 85%
Little Nemo 1990 3140x 92%
Lode Runner 1983 79105x 81%
Lunar Ball 1985 12816x 68%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 7919x 70%
Mach Rider 1985 7101x 63%
Macross 1985 5368x 76%
Magic Jewelry 1990 43765x 80%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 4639x 59%
Mahjong 1983 2576x 40%
Maniac Mansion 1987 5860x 67%
Mappy 1983 81809x 81%
Mappy Land 1986 9953x 83%
Marble Madness 1984 3426x 90%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 8415x 74%
Mario Bros. 1983 44136x 78%
Mario is Missing! 1992 4171x 65%
Mega Man 1987 15396x 77%
Mega Man 2 1988 14259x 79%
Mega Man 3 1990 9706x 77%
Mega Man 4 1991 6095x 82%
Mega Man 5 1992 4860x 65%
Mega Man 6 1993 4883x 66%
Metal Gear 1987 6360x 81%
Metroid 1986 12874x 83%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 3865x 80%
Micro Machines 1991 7790x 84%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 4538x 79%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 8677x 77%
Millipede 1982 4747x 61%
Mission: Impossible 1990 4653x 75%
Monopoly 1987 16069x 91%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 5380x 79%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 15374x 72%
NARC 1988 1724x 50%
New Zealand Story 1989 5085x 50%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 6972x 58%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 14580x 76%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 7122x 88%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 7525x 89%
Ninja-Kun 1984 4426x 70%
North & South 1989 6442x 84%
Nuts & Milk 1984 18335x 79%
Operation Wolf 1989 3786x 58%
Othello 1988 6020x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 3614x 60%
Pac-Land 1985 15127x 66%
Pac-Man 1980 15205x 82%
Pac-Mania 1988 8165x 74%
Palamedes 1990 3381x 63%
Paperboy 1984 13694x 76%
Paperboy 2 1991 875x 58%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 7328x 72%
Penguin Wars 1985 4773x 81%
Pinball 1984 10445x 68%
Pipe Mania 1988 4140x 90%
Pooyan 1982 14427x 81%
Popeye 1982 34037x 79%
Predator 1987 4864x 35%
Prince of Persia 1989 8608x 74%
Pro Wrestling 1986 4730x 49%
Punch-Out!! 1987 75324x 87%
Q*bert 1982 8256x 64%
Qix 1981 1711x 53%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 11171x 74%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 6353x 65%
Rad Racer 1987 10393x 66%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 2410x 66%
Rampage 1986 5212x 75%
Renegade 1986 6258x 81%
River City Ransom 1989 4539x 88%
Road Fighter 1984 43709x 75%
Road Runner 1985 4448x 70%
Robin Hood 1991 5569x 90%
RoboCop 1988 8516x 69%
RoboCop 2 1991 473x 80%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 316x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 4840x 66%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 2605x 76%
Rush’n Attack 1986 7881x 75%
Rygar 1986 5649x 73%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 130391x 73%
Section-Z 1985 3056x 62%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 1269x 80%
Shadowgate 1987 5071x 76%
Shanghai 1986 3926x 67%
Side Pocket 1987 3621x 50%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 10806x 73%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 4586x 42%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 1939x 35%
Skate or Die 1988 5682x 90%
Ski or Die 1990 7278x 78%
Sky Destroyer 1985 9590x 85%
Sky Kid 1985 1872x 68%
Slalom 1987 2102x 60%
Snow Brothers 1990 8066x 90%
Soccer 1985 8013x 77%
Solomon’s Key 1986 7868x 85%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 3922x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 9619x 68%
Space Invaders 1978 5695x 73%
Spelunker 1983 8198x 69%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 7218x 79%
Splatterhouse 1989 1951x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 6167x 80%
Spy vs Spy 1984 6576x 80%
Star Force 1984 12978x 84%
Star Luster 1985 996x 50%
Star Soldier 1986 1958x 69%
Star Wars 1987 1988x 85%
Star Wars 1991 4027x 78%
StarTropics 1990 1072x 90%
Stinger 1987 3550x 85%
Strider 1989 3593x 89%
Super Arabian 1983 7253x 63%
Super C 1990 20608x 82%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 655472x 78%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 99146x 68%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 265794x 71%
Super Mario Special 1986 68488x 72%
Super Pitfall 1987 7411x 61%
Super Robin Hood 1986 9058x 89%
Super Sprint 1986 6326x 64%
Sweet Home 1989 5304x 74%
Sword Master 1992 1014x 70%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 12067x 76%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 10174x 65%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 12445x 90%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 7434x 77%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 8660x 81%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 25146x 74%
Tennis 1983 18931x 82%
Terminator 2 1991 6249x 53%
Tetris 1986 14896x 67%
The Flintstones 1991 10782x 84%
The Goonies 1986 5897x 77%
The Jungle Book 1994 4556x 73%
The Karate Kid 1987 8315x 76%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 52363x 87%
The Terminator 1992 5643x 75%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 5707x 87%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 10835x 84%
Toobin’ 1988 762x 70%
Track & Field 1984 25555x 73%
TwinBee 1985 10155x 88%
Urban Champion 1984 9620x 76%
Vindicators 1988 4344x 66%
Volguard II 1985 1821x 62%
Volleyball 1986 7012x 65%
Wario’s Woods 1994 7787x 66%
Warpman 1985 4774x 61%
Willow 1989 3984x 61%
Winter Games 1985 4306x 67%
Wizardry 1981 4183x 53%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 4852x 79%
Wrecking Crew 1985 12535x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 4375x 65%
Xevious 1982 8731x 77%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 19411x 71%
Yo! Noid 1990 5771x 65%
Zelda II 1987 16606x 73%
Zippy Race 1985 12416x 63%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master


 

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