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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 18521x 65%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 3406x 41%
1942 1984 46968x 72%
1943 1987 34084x 66%
20 in 1 1991 3599x 68%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 5189x 62%
31 in 1 1991 4777x 74%
42 in 1 1991 4279x 33%
64 in 1 1991 14634x 69%
8 Eyes 1988 23089x 62%
Addams Family, The 1991 13862x 70%
Adventure Island 1986 84374x 71%
Adventure Island II 1991 35018x 74%
Adventure Island III 1992 24220x 74%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 37467x 69%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 16331x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 17391x 78%
Alien 3 1992 8573x 68%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 1013x 41%
Altered Beast 1988 6598x 63%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 22840x 69%
Archon 1983 9940x 67%
Argus 1986 4764x 52%
Arkanoid 1986 63998x 73%
Arkanoid II 1987 12447x 68%
B-Wings 1984 19977x 65%
Back to the Future 1989 10785x 47%
Bad Dudes 1988 9220x 57%
Badminton 1988 4489x 80%
Balloon Fight 1984 45385x 74%
Baseball 1983 57765x 74%
Baseball Stars 1989 15109x 80%
Batman 1989 34880x 82%
Battle Chess 1988 17173x 61%
Battle City 1985 384132x 77%
Battleship 1993 15527x 78%
Battletoads 1991 27903x 76%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 10131x 74%
Binary Land 1985 18744x 67%
Bionic Commando 1987 11077x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 36910x 86%
Blaster Master 1988 8188x 73%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 6280x 51%
Bomberman 1985 704302x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 133010x 72%
Boulder Dash 1984 28588x 67%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 22690x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 43012x 68%
Bugs Bunny 1989 14421x 67%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 34132x 69%
BurgerTime 1982 28832x 75%
California Games 1987 7592x 51%
Castelian 1987 8478x 62%
Castlequest 1985 2673x 71%
Castlevania 1986 36150x 83%
Castlevania II 1987 25229x 72%
Castlevania III 1989 17596x 83%
Chack’n Pop 1983 10567x 65%
Challenger 1985 7147x 59%
Championship Bowling 1989 10510x 67%
Championship Karate 1992 2633x 56%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 33406x 80%
Chase H.Q. 1988 21558x 66%
Chessmaster 1989 8268x 73%
Chiller 1986 6995x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 45856x 76%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 24922x 76%
Choplifter 1982 7838x 71%
Chubby Cherub 1985 1385x 75%
Circus Charlie 1984 132031x 73%
City Connection 1985 14318x 73%
Cliffhanger 1993 4947x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 13903x 71%
Commando 1985 15390x 62%
Contra 1987 381994x 75%
Contra Force 1992 36943x 73%
Crazy Climber 1980 2560x 35%
Crystalis 1990 16609x 66%
Darkwing Duck 1992 5809x 87%
Defender II 1981 10940x 85%
Devil World 1984 9105x 66%
Die Hard 1991 8050x 81%
Dig Dug 1982 282516x 76%
Dig Dug II 1985 18629x 81%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 38383x 77%
Donkey Kong 1981 130023x 75%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 29540x 71%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 75023x 66%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 20704x 68%
Door Door 1985 8656x 81%
Double Dragon 1987 54024x 65%
Double Dragon II 1990 35438x 73%
Double Dragon III 1990 24309x 73%
Double Dribble 1987 31715x 76%
Dough Boy 1984 3863x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 702068x 72%
Dracula 1993 9351x 60%
Dragon Spirit 1987 6601x 85%
Dragon Warrior 1986 23242x 83%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 6126x 68%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 794x 90%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 10280x 76%
Duck Tales 1989 35869x 62%
Elevator Action 1983 21250x 72%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 1863x 83%
Excitebike 1984 100409x 74%
Exerion 1983 9803x 65%
F-1 Race 1984 24855x 58%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 12948x 69%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 9990x 72%
Faxanadu 1987 8060x 72%
Felix the Cat 1992 69907x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 2795x 36%
Field Combat 1985 10462x 79%
Final Fantasy 1987 32133x 80%
Final Fantasy II 1988 13413x 76%
Final Fantasy III 1990 10805x 84%
Final Lap 1987 5780x 50%
Flappy 1983 8437x 73%
Formation Z 1984 8514x 76%
Friday the 13th 1989 21949x 55%
Front Line 1982 15070x 85%
Galaga 1981 225320x 76%
Galaxian 1979 86905x 71%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 1730x 65%
Gauntlet 1985 4620x 69%
Gauntlet II 1986 5116x 66%
Geimos 1985 4868x 40%
Ghostbusters 1984 8372x 67%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 23268x 69%
Goal! 1988 15346x 78%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 12476x 82%
Golf 1984 15022x 67%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 8054x 74%
Gradius 1985 24686x 80%
Gradius II 1988 4565x 72%
Guerrilla War 1987 9554x 87%
Gun.Smoke 1987 15432x 76%
Gyromite 1985 9334x 69%
Gyruss 1983 11600x 72%
Home Alone 1991 11472x 80%
Honey Peach 1990 10971x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 18284x 37%
Hudson Hawk 1991 7403x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 77561x 73%
Ice Hockey 1988 25162x 71%
Igo 1987 6298x 64%
Ikari Warriors 1986 12820x 70%
Ikki 1985 8438x 71%
Indiana Jones 1987 7455x 62%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 8851x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 12277x 76%
Ironman 1989 6168x 70%
Jackal 1986 20237x 79%
Jaws 1987 14200x 68%
Jeopardy! 1988 2201x 51%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 1759x 58%
Journey to Silius 1990 7391x 66%
Joust 1982 14554x 65%
Jurassic Park 1993 14326x 76%
Kabuki 1990 4265x 62%
Karate Champ 1984 19513x 65%
Karateka 1984 22342x 66%
Kid Icarus 1986 26722x 81%
Kings of the Beach 1988 10663x 79%
King’s Quest V 1990 10061x 81%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 39292x 81%
Knight Move 1990 2828x 60%
Knight Rider 1988 4265x 34%
Knightmare II 1987 1498x 73%
Krion Conquest 1990 7745x 88%
Kung Fu 2 1991 10960x 74%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 63162x 78%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 30017x 76%
Lemmings 1991 14494x 64%
Life Force 1986 12001x 77%
Lion King, The 1994 9982x 71%
Little Nemo 1990 10395x 90%
Lode Runner 1983 161602x 76%
Lunar Ball 1985 24983x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 15815x 70%
Mach Rider 1985 14194x 57%
Macross 1985 9959x 68%
Magic Jewelry 1990 76856x 78%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 8558x 61%
Mahjong 1983 6830x 51%
Maniac Mansion 1987 11193x 65%
Mappy 1983 174652x 81%
Mappy Land 1986 18003x 81%
Marble Madness 1984 7308x 68%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 16188x 70%
Mario Bros. 1983 106191x 75%
Mario is Missing! 1992 11088x 71%
Mega Man 1987 47764x 74%
Mega Man 2 1988 36786x 77%
Mega Man 3 1990 22696x 79%
Mega Man 4 1991 16019x 71%
Mega Man 5 1992 14514x 73%
Mega Man 6 1993 14747x 73%
Metal Gear 1987 15498x 73%
Metroid 1986 31371x 79%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 10594x 67%
Micro Machines 1991 15835x 83%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 8797x 75%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 18782x 80%
Millipede 1982 9289x 62%
Mission: Impossible 1990 9193x 75%
Monopoly 1987 31182x 81%
Monster Party 1989 1965x 60%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 10695x 83%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 32624x 72%
NARC 1988 5931x 51%
New Zealand Story 1989 9451x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 14496x 59%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 39952x 81%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 13640x 81%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 16264x 89%
Ninja-Kun 1984 9793x 74%
North & South 1989 12546x 73%
Nuts & Milk 1984 32371x 75%
Operation Wolf 1989 7414x 62%
Othello 1988 11113x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 10134x 71%
Pac-Land 1985 32625x 67%
Pac-Man 1980 34624x 79%
Pac-Mania 1988 19303x 74%
Palamedes 1990 7048x 63%
Paperboy 1984 30917x 73%
Paperboy 2 1991 4192x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 12884x 72%
Penguin Wars 1985 9041x 79%
Pinball 1984 21218x 69%
Pipe Mania 1988 10309x 81%
Pooyan 1982 26086x 78%
Popeye 1982 65733x 77%
Predator 1987 8977x 46%
Prince of Persia 1989 16070x 68%
Pro Wrestling 1986 12661x 61%
Punch-Out!! 1987 207304x 84%
Q*bert 1982 17086x 66%
Qix 1981 5907x 58%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 28716x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 12791x 79%
Rad Racer 1987 21272x 71%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 5934x 67%
Rambo 1988 2107x 33%
Rampage 1986 12767x 74%
Renegade 1986 11591x 75%
River City Ransom 1989 12210x 83%
Road Fighter 1984 107945x 69%
Road Runner 1985 12079x 74%
Robin Hood 1991 9690x 82%
RoboCop 1988 15847x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 6575x 75%
RoboCop 3 1992 3343x 77%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 3078x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 9595x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 6645x 75%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 2166x 70%
Rush’n Attack 1986 16899x 74%
Rygar 1986 12041x 63%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 258659x 71%
Sasa 1984 2262x 63%
Section-Z 1985 6509x 76%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 6704x 72%
Shadowgate 1987 9559x 81%
Shanghai 1986 7116x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 7710x 50%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 20982x 67%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 10366x 41%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 6211x 40%
Skate or Die 1988 12571x 86%
Ski or Die 1990 11968x 75%
Sky Destroyer 1985 17368x 79%
Sky Kid 1985 5764x 72%
Slalom 1987 5946x 60%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 2723x 82%
Snake's Revenge 1990 461x 57%
Snow Brothers 1990 21260x 78%
Soccer 1985 17961x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 18712x 82%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 7948x 80%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 20651x 62%
Space Invaders 1978 10633x 66%
Spelunker 1983 17126x 69%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 15669x 77%
Splatterhouse 1989 5593x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 12762x 80%
Spy vs Spy 1984 15949x 75%
Star Force 1984 25849x 81%
Star Luster 1985 4890x 58%
Star Soldier 1986 6521x 73%
Star Wars 1987 7759x 57%
Star Wars 1991 10460x 73%
StarTropics 1990 5420x 57%
Stinger 1987 7050x 85%
Strider 1989 7357x 81%
Super Arabian 1983 13977x 70%
Super C 1990 52367x 79%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2066384x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 245462x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 594202x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 176345x 69%
Super Pitfall 1987 14583x 56%
Super Robin Hood 1986 15495x 76%
Super Sprint 1986 12887x 69%
Sweet Home 1989 9628x 65%
Sword Master 1992 4582x 55%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 24973x 71%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 28154x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 26817x 81%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 19412x 73%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 19392x 82%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 51118x 68%
Tennis 1983 45699x 77%
Terminator 2 1991 12386x 61%
Tetris 1989 16391x 87%
Tetris 1988 11228x 79%
Tetris 1986 33676x 68%
Tetris 2 1993 1966x 80%
The Black Onyx 1984 1662x 50%
The Flintstones 1991 20117x 71%
The Goonies 1986 19088x 70%
The Goonies II 1987 683x 60%
The Jungle Book 1994 10197x 58%
The Karate Kid 1987 15048x 74%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 203766x 79%
The Terminator 1992 11452x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 11244x 83%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 27871x 78%
Toobin’ 1988 4287x 85%
Total Recall 1990 2677x 80%
Track & Field 1984 57163x 70%
TwinBee 1985 23802x 76%
Urban Champion 1984 19489x 75%
Vindicators 1988 8250x 65%
Volguard II 1985 4663x 68%
Volleyball 1986 13853x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 6490x 72%
Wacky Races 1992 5599x 60%
Wario’s Woods 1994 16640x 68%
Warpman 1985 8798x 65%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 2532x 78%
Wild Ball 1988 11918x 51%
Willow 1989 9156x 68%
Winter Games 1985 8616x 60%
Wizardry 1981 8235x 54%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 10282x 83%
Wrecking Crew 1985 25810x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 7914x 65%
Xevious 1982 20028x 78%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 39694x 69%
Yo! Noid 1990 11402x 68%
Zelda II 1987 37301x 69%
Zippy Race 1985 22839x 59%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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