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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 28219x 62%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 7191x 55%
115 in 1 1992 11953x 54%
1942 1984 72638x 70%
1943 1987 51618x 67%
20 in 1 1991 8428x 62%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 11210x 60%
31 in 1 1991 12094x 65%
42 in 1 1991 13073x 45%
64 in 1 1991 45550x 63%
8 Eyes 1988 31782x 57%
Addams Family, The 1991 20655x 64%
Adventure Island 1986 137753x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 48879x 73%
Adventure Island III 1992 39611x 73%
Adventures of Bayou Billy 1988 2058x 58%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 54105x 67%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 23140x 66%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 24112x 73%
Airwolf 1988 4346x 70%
Alien 3 1992 12344x 70%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 20430x 71%
Altered Beast 1988 10000x 59%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 32168x 68%
Archon 1983 16156x 64%
Argus 1986 9435x 63%
Arkanoid 1986 84748x 71%
Arkanoid II 1987 17912x 67%
Athena 1986 1750x 71%
B-Wings 1984 29069x 63%
Back to the Future 1989 16939x 50%
Bad Dudes 1988 17050x 54%
Badminton 1988 7097x 61%
Ballblazer 1985 1765x 53%
Balloon Fight 1984 66376x 74%
Baseball 1983 85980x 72%
Baseball Stars 1989 29612x 73%
Batman 1989 49322x 81%
Batman Returns 1992 1456x 55%
Battle Chess 1988 24602x 63%
Battle City 1985 568540x 75%
Battleship 1993 21319x 72%
Battletoads 1991 48589x 73%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 19370x 73%
Binary Land 1985 24751x 70%
Bionic Commando 1987 15983x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 50674x 80%
Blaster Master 1988 14327x 69%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 9835x 53%
Bomberman 1985 1029441x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 155358x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 42558x 64%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 35420x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 86097x 67%
Bugs Bunny 1989 28609x 69%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 45718x 66%
BurgerTime 1982 50850x 73%
Caesars Palace 1992 2479x 49%
California Games 1987 11054x 55%
Captain Skyhawk 1989 2642x 73%
Castelian 1987 11279x 62%
Castlequest 1985 8388x 78%
Castlevania 1986 75488x 80%
Castlevania II 1987 36171x 73%
Castlevania III 1989 30722x 78%
Chack’n Pop 1983 14164x 58%
Challenger 1985 10160x 73%
Championship Bowling 1989 14537x 71%
Championship Karate 1992 4620x 55%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 42461x 79%
Chase H.Q. 1988 29246x 62%
Chessmaster 1989 12046x 74%
Chiller 1986 11029x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 66793x 75%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 36166x 74%
Choplifter 1982 11024x 65%
Chubby Cherub 1985 3811x 75%
Circus Charlie 1984 188885x 70%
City Connection 1985 21700x 69%
Cliffhanger 1993 7707x 65%
Clu Clu Land 1984 19138x 70%
Commando 1985 22509x 61%
Contra 1987 645652x 74%
Contra Force 1992 53077x 75%
Crazy Climber 1980 5916x 33%
Crystalis 1990 24023x 64%
Darkwing Duck 1992 14879x 81%
Defender II 1981 15586x 81%
Devil World 1984 13035x 61%
Die Hard 1991 11999x 78%
Dig Dug 1982 399158x 75%
Dig Dug II 1985 27958x 81%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 53648x 74%
Donkey Kong 1981 184023x 73%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 41142x 71%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 100889x 67%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 26879x 68%
Door Door 1985 12521x 73%
Double Dragon 1987 81740x 63%
Double Dragon II 1990 57464x 74%
Double Dragon III 1990 35610x 74%
Double Dribble 1987 43481x 72%
Dough Boy 1984 5959x 48%
Dr. Mario 1990 973167x 71%
Dracula 1993 12762x 66%
Dragon Spirit 1987 11645x 77%
Dragon Warrior 1986 37650x 82%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 10748x 72%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 5840x 78%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 15855x 64%
Duck Hunt 1984 17028x 81%
Duck Tales 1989 54689x 63%
Egypt 1991 1437x 48%
Elevator Action 1983 33696x 72%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 5030x 59%
Elite 1984 4256x 64%
Excitebike 1984 137496x 73%
Exerion 1983 13540x 61%
F-1 Race 1984 33566x 53%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 17266x 71%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 14787x 68%
Fantasy Zone 1986 331x 35%
Faxanadu 1987 12347x 64%
Felix the Cat 1992 89687x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 6314x 48%
Field Combat 1985 14570x 83%
Final Fantasy 1987 53639x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 20469x 80%
Final Fantasy III 1990 18787x 83%
Final Lap 1987 9396x 59%
Flappy 1983 13244x 80%
Flipull 1989 856x 60%
Formation Z 1984 11638x 74%
Friday the 13th 1989 34714x 61%
Front Line 1982 20877x 76%
Galaga 1981 310426x 75%
Galaxian 1979 122324x 70%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 4498x 59%
Gauntlet 1985 9892x 70%
Gauntlet II 1986 8694x 71%
Geimos 1985 7094x 38%
Ghostbusters 1984 13906x 56%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 41695x 68%
Goal! 1988 22061x 80%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 17279x 77%
Golf 1984 22999x 73%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 10720x 68%
Gradius 1985 39671x 75%
Gradius II 1988 8154x 74%
Guerrilla War 1987 15013x 82%
Gun.Smoke 1987 25080x 74%
Gyromite 1985 13459x 58%
Gyruss 1983 16952x 73%
Hello Kitty World 1992 2138x 68%
Hogan's Alley 1984 2647x 64%
Home Alone 1991 16378x 73%
Honey Peach 1990 15203x 43%
Hot Slots 1991 23260x 42%
Hudson Hawk 1991 10131x 65%
Ice Climber 1985 113489x 72%
Ice Hockey 1988 34483x 69%
Igo 1987 8432x 59%
Ikari Warriors 1986 20017x 59%
Ikki 1985 10762x 63%
Indiana Jones 1987 10192x 63%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 12541x 59%
Indy Heat 1991 16990x 71%
Ironman 1989 9773x 56%
Jackal 1986 32908x 77%
Jackie Chan 1990 1381x 48%
Jaws 1987 20815x 67%
Jeopardy! 1988 6398x 59%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 4822x 58%
Journey to Silius 1990 10431x 68%
Joust 1982 22190x 72%
Jurassic Park 1993 20139x 79%
Kabuki 1990 7505x 59%
Karate Champ 1984 27524x 60%
Karateka 1984 33169x 63%
Kickle Cubicle 1988 2158x 61%
Kid Icarus 1986 37091x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 15332x 80%
King’s Quest V 1990 13670x 79%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 63243x 80%
Knight Move 1990 4979x 55%
Knight Rider 1988 8760x 44%
Knightmare II 1987 4547x 76%
Krion Conquest 1990 10890x 71%
Kung Fu 2 1991 15920x 69%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 87540x 77%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 45445x 77%
Lemmings 1991 19613x 58%
Life Force 1986 18539x 79%
Lion King, The 1994 15563x 75%
Little Nemo 1990 16632x 76%
Lode Runner 1983 204785x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 33275x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 22701x 69%
Mach Rider 1985 20223x 59%
Macross 1985 14059x 72%
Magic Jewelry 1990 110542x 75%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 11154x 59%
Mahjong 1983 10136x 52%
Maniac Mansion 1987 16492x 79%
Mappy 1983 238658x 81%
Mappy Kids 1989 3105x 66%
Mappy Land 1986 22583x 80%
Marble Madness 1984 13056x 68%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 22215x 71%
Mario Bros. 1983 157480x 71%
Mario is Missing! 1992 16389x 67%
Maxi-15 Pack 1992 2112x 56%
Mega Man 1987 94001x 72%
Mega Man 2 1988 74012x 80%
Mega Man 3 1990 41015x 82%
Mega Man 4 1991 28964x 77%
Mega Man 5 1992 27918x 77%
Mega Man 6 1993 27266x 81%
Metal Gear 1987 26253x 70%
Metroid 1986 51026x 77%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 16670x 67%
Micro Machines 1991 24414x 76%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 12381x 70%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 28056x 80%
Millipede 1982 13107x 66%
Mission: Impossible 1990 12639x 66%
Monopoly 1987 42649x 80%
Monster Party 1989 5246x 73%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 16249x 82%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 43560x 74%
NARC 1988 10157x 54%
New Zealand Story 1989 13648x 57%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 21242x 62%
Nightshade 1992 1745x 45%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 65087x 79%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 19653x 80%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 23841x 81%
Ninja-Kun 1984 13368x 71%
North & South 1989 17815x 69%
Nuts & Milk 1984 41209x 74%
Operation Wolf 1989 10140x 59%
Othello 1988 15076x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 15501x 64%
Pac-Land 1985 44901x 65%
Pac-Man 1980 52450x 74%
Pac-Mania 1988 26282x 74%
Palamedes 1990 9739x 63%
Paperboy 1984 49674x 70%
Paperboy 2 1991 7338x 60%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 17149x 72%
Penguin Wars 1985 12247x 79%
Pinball 1984 29608x 70%
Pipe Mania 1988 13628x 79%
Pirates! 1984 4343x 77%
Pooyan 1982 34541x 75%
Popeye 1982 86092x 73%
Predator 1987 11957x 50%
Prince of Persia 1989 22899x 69%
Pro Wrestling 1986 20584x 54%
Punch-Out!! 1987 369529x 83%
Q*bert 1982 29334x 60%
Qix 1981 9550x 58%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 44469x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 19612x 70%
Rad Racer 1987 30357x 69%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 9078x 58%
Rainbow Islands 1987 2552x 58%
Rambo 1988 5985x 46%
Rampage 1986 21691x 74%
Renegade 1986 16007x 73%
River City Ransom 1989 19379x 77%
Road Fighter 1984 148434x 68%
Road Runner 1985 18656x 70%
Robin Hood 1991 12957x 72%
RoboCop 1988 22813x 70%
RoboCop 2 1991 11341x 68%
RoboCop 3 1992 6621x 66%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 5040x 75%
RoboWarrior 1987 12147x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 9576x 77%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 4863x 55%
Rush’n Attack 1986 25704x 73%
Rygar 1986 18488x 60%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 336626x 71%
Sasa 1984 4954x 64%
Section-Z 1985 9237x 65%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 13432x 69%
Shadowgate 1987 13916x 76%
Shanghai 1986 9298x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 13551x 65%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 29994x 65%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 15240x 48%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 9349x 63%
Skate or Die 1988 18534x 70%
Ski or Die 1990 15592x 69%
Sky Destroyer 1985 23495x 78%
Sky Kid 1985 9296x 74%
Slalom 1987 9214x 58%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 6994x 67%
Snake's Revenge 1990 3056x 51%
Snow Brothers 1990 39988x 68%
Soccer 1985 27957x 70%
Solitaire 1992 1830x 53%
Solomon’s Key 1986 28549x 78%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 11203x 74%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 29869x 63%
Space Invaders 1978 17756x 65%
Spelunker 1983 23154x 66%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 24934x 71%
Splatterhouse 1989 8689x 64%
Spy Hunter 1983 20161x 74%
Spy vs Spy 1984 26148x 72%
Star Force 1984 35497x 79%
Star Luster 1985 7846x 64%
Star Soldier 1986 10048x 72%
Star Wars 1987 12029x 58%
Star Wars 1991 16075x 76%
StarTropics 1990 9100x 64%
Stinger 1987 9700x 61%
Strider 1989 9884x 74%
Super Arabian 1983 18925x 70%
Super C 1990 83734x 76%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2774000x 72%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 372265x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 862622x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 249771x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 19733x 57%
Super Robin Hood 1986 20417x 74%
Super Sprint 1986 18385x 68%
Superman 1987 3936x 66%
Sweet Home 1989 14476x 64%
Sword Master 1992 7648x 65%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 38925x 72%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 42083x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 41802x 77%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 40858x 77%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 32546x 81%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 73033x 69%
Tennis 1983 67105x 75%
Terminator 2 1991 17779x 65%
Tetris 1989 240652x 81%
Tetris 1988 34240x 77%
Tetris 1986 43653x 66%
Tetris 2 1993 7262x 59%
The Battle of Olympus 1988 1951x 59%
The Black Onyx 1984 4507x 54%
The Flintstones 1991 28031x 74%
The Goonies 1986 29402x 69%
The Goonies II 1987 4219x 61%
The Jungle Book 1994 16557x 66%
The Karate Kid 1987 20895x 72%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 322921x 79%
The Terminator 1992 15421x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 15992x 80%
Thexder 1985 1587x 60%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 49537x 71%
Toobin’ 1988 7358x 60%
Top Gun 1987 6966x 52%
Total Recall 1990 5813x 67%
Track & Field 1984 86265x 68%
TwinBee 1985 36371x 75%
Urban Champion 1984 26698x 69%
Vindicators 1988 11178x 59%
Volguard II 1985 6727x 64%
Volleyball 1986 19193x 71%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 11348x 73%
Wacky Races 1992 10756x 54%
Wario’s Woods 1994 23360x 68%
Warpman 1985 11823x 64%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 7504x 59%
Wild Ball 1988 24340x 53%
Wild Gunman 1984 3605x 57%
Willow 1989 13352x 70%
Winter Games 1985 11772x 56%
Wizardry 1981 12122x 63%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 16544x 83%
Wrecking Crew 1985 35902x 70%
Xenophobe 1988 10559x 62%
Xevious 1982 31034x 79%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 59583x 71%
Yo! Noid 1990 17949x 67%
Zelda II 1987 55615x 71%
Zippy Race 1985 30144x 65%
Zoda’s Revenge 1994 824x 80%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Manual: Nintendo_NES.pdf
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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