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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 30149x 63%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 8080x 57%
115 in 1 1992 16054x 57%
1942 1984 78215x 70%
1943 1987 55170x 67%
20 in 1 1991 9533x 62%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 12300x 60%
31 in 1 1991 13622x 65%
42 in 1 1991 14991x 46%
64 in 1 1991 52533x 65%
8 Eyes 1988 33805x 58%
Addams Family, The 1991 22280x 66%
Adventure Island 1986 147163x 71%
Adventure Island II 1991 51554x 73%
Adventure Island III 1992 43167x 73%
Adventures of Bayou Billy 1988 3484x 58%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 56924x 67%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 24366x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 25289x 72%
Airwolf 1988 6404x 69%
Alien 3 1992 13034x 69%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 24431x 70%
Altered Beast 1988 10603x 60%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 33838x 69%
Archon 1983 17628x 65%
Argus 1986 10279x 65%
Arkanoid 1986 88925x 71%
Arkanoid II 1987 18843x 66%
Athena 1986 2495x 75%
B-Wings 1984 30668x 63%
Back to the Future 1989 18313x 50%
Bad Dudes 1988 18999x 55%
Badminton 1988 7595x 61%
Ballblazer 1985 2108x 53%
Balloon Fight 1984 69734x 74%
Baseball 1983 91106x 72%
Baseball Stars 1989 33190x 73%
Batman 1989 52543x 80%
Batman Returns 1992 1969x 55%
Battle Chess 1988 25787x 63%
Battle City 1985 604310x 75%
Battleship 1993 22536x 72%
Battletoads 1991 52618x 72%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 21317x 73%
Binary Land 1985 25908x 70%
Bionic Commando 1987 16998x 72%
Bird Week 1986 814x 23%
Blades of Steel 1988 53269x 80%
Blaster Master 1988 15963x 70%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 10525x 55%
Bomberman 1985 1084702x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 159086x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 45259x 64%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 38682x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 97036x 68%
Bugs Bunny 1989 31367x 70%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 48066x 66%
BurgerTime 1982 55381x 74%
Caesars Palace 1992 3370x 47%
California Games 1987 11991x 57%
Captain Skyhawk 1989 3114x 72%
Castelian 1987 11843x 58%
Castlequest 1985 9073x 79%
Castlevania 1986 83815x 80%
Castlevania II 1987 38475x 71%
Castlevania III 1989 33052x 78%
Chack’n Pop 1983 14839x 58%
Challenger 1985 10708x 73%
Championship Bowling 1989 15361x 71%
Championship Karate 1992 5026x 55%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 44275x 78%
Chase H.Q. 1988 30693x 63%
Chessmaster 1989 12742x 72%
Chiller 1986 11722x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 70272x 75%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 38172x 74%
Choplifter 1982 11792x 65%
Chubby Cherub 1985 4230x 59%
Circus Charlie 1984 198690x 70%
City Connection 1985 23146x 69%
Cliffhanger 1993 8248x 65%
Clu Clu Land 1984 19966x 70%
Commando 1985 23876x 63%
Contra 1987 703610x 73%
Contra Force 1992 56969x 75%
Crazy Climber 1980 6550x 40%
Crystalis 1990 25457x 64%
Darkwing Duck 1992 16875x 82%
Defender II 1981 16500x 80%
Devil World 1984 13837x 63%
Die Hard 1991 12746x 75%
Dig Dug 1982 422116x 75%
Dig Dug II 1985 29918x 81%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 57172x 74%
Donkey Kong 1981 198608x 72%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 43659x 72%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 105901x 67%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 28063x 65%
Door Door 1985 13204x 73%
Double Dragon 1987 87683x 63%
Double Dragon II 1990 62045x 74%
Double Dragon III 1990 37821x 73%
Double Dribble 1987 45677x 71%
Dough Boy 1984 6711x 48%
Dr. Mario 1990 1016514x 71%
Dracula 1993 13494x 70%
Dragon Ball 1986 1894x 85%
Dragon Spirit 1987 12409x 77%
Dragon Warrior 1986 40958x 82%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 11670x 72%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 6885x 79%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 17375x 64%
Duck Hunt 1984 25639x 82%
Duck Tales 1989 58186x 65%
Egypt 1991 1918x 48%
Elevator Action 1983 36569x 72%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 5672x 65%
Elite 1984 4954x 67%
Excitebike 1984 143600x 74%
Exerion 1983 14303x 61%
F-1 Race 1984 35312x 54%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 18119x 71%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 15847x 68%
Fantasy Zone 1986 768x 57%
Faxanadu 1987 13196x 67%
Felix the Cat 1992 93208x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 7098x 54%
Field Combat 1985 15464x 83%
Final Fantasy 1987 57737x 80%
Final Fantasy II 1988 22000x 81%
Final Fantasy III 1990 20527x 81%
Final Lap 1987 10078x 59%
Flappy 1983 14276x 80%
Flipull 1989 1343x 60%
Formation Z 1984 12350x 74%
Friday the 13th 1989 37427x 62%
Front Line 1982 21913x 75%
Galaga 1981 334514x 75%
Galaxian 1979 127585x 70%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 4992x 59%
Gauntlet 1985 11346x 72%
Gauntlet II 1986 9529x 72%
Geimos 1985 7519x 38%
Ghostbusters 1984 15103x 58%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 45985x 68%
Goal! 1988 23401x 80%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 18143x 77%
Golf 1984 24980x 74%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 11309x 71%
Gradius 1985 42394x 75%
Gradius II 1988 8914x 77%
Guerrilla War 1987 16241x 82%
Gun.Smoke 1987 26960x 73%
Gyromite 1985 14287x 58%
Gyruss 1983 18153x 73%
Hello Kitty World 1992 2617x 68%
Hogan's Alley 1984 3461x 66%
Home Alone 1991 17248x 72%
Honey Peach 1990 16043x 40%
Hot Slots 1991 24124x 40%
Hudson Hawk 1991 10637x 65%
Ice Climber 1985 119107x 72%
Ice Hockey 1988 36257x 70%
Igo 1987 8887x 59%
Ikari Warriors 1986 21561x 59%
Ikki 1985 11251x 64%
Indiana Jones 1987 10683x 63%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 13233x 59%
Indy Heat 1991 18001x 71%
Ironman 1989 10474x 58%
Jackal 1986 35453x 78%
Jackie Chan 1990 2446x 66%
Jaws 1987 22241x 67%
Jeopardy! 1988 7253x 53%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 5378x 60%
Journey to Silius 1990 11076x 68%
Joust 1982 24206x 74%
Jurassic Park 1993 21211x 79%
Kabuki 1990 8041x 59%
Karate Champ 1984 29191x 60%
Karateka 1984 35426x 63%
Kickle Cubicle 1988 2874x 61%
Kid Icarus 1986 38913x 78%
Kings of the Beach 1988 16268x 80%
King’s Quest V 1990 14376x 80%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 70125x 79%
Knight Move 1990 5385x 64%
Knight Rider 1988 9703x 44%
Knightmare II 1987 5083x 79%
Krion Conquest 1990 11436x 71%
Kung Fu 2 1991 16963x 72%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 93459x 76%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 48602x 76%
Lemmings 1991 20792x 58%
Life Force 1986 20066x 81%
Lion King, The 1994 16652x 76%
Little Nemo 1990 18071x 75%
Lode Runner 1983 211588x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 34704x 69%
M.U.L.E. 1983 574x 60%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 24040x 70%
Mach Rider 1985 21256x 60%
Macross 1985 14871x 73%
Magic Jewelry 1990 116356x 75%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 11702x 59%
Mahjong 1983 10783x 52%
Maniac Mansion 1987 17876x 79%
Mappy 1983 247305x 80%
Mappy Kids 1989 3647x 67%
Mappy Land 1986 23403x 79%
Marble Madness 1984 14602x 71%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 23518x 72%
Mario Bros. 1983 168181x 71%
Mario is Missing! 1992 17055x 66%
Maxi-15 Pack 1992 2764x 56%
Mega Man 1987 105804x 72%
Mega Man 2 1988 83194x 79%
Mega Man 3 1990 45607x 82%
Mega Man 4 1991 32114x 80%
Mega Man 5 1992 31213x 79%
Mega Man 6 1993 30598x 80%
Metal Gear 1987 29037x 70%
Metroid 1986 55331x 76%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 17936x 69%
Micro Machines 1991 26265x 77%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 13056x 70%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 29961x 80%
Millipede 1982 13877x 66%
Mission: Impossible 1990 13336x 66%
Monopoly 1987 45329x 80%
Monster Party 1989 5927x 76%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 17451x 83%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 45837x 73%
NARC 1988 11188x 54%
New Zealand Story 1989 14528x 57%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 22703x 62%
Nightshade 1992 2120x 45%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 69253x 80%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 20871x 82%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 25333x 80%
Ninja-Kun 1984 14034x 69%
North & South 1989 19138x 70%
Nuts & Milk 1984 42979x 73%
Operation Wolf 1989 10674x 59%
Othello 1988 15774x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 16586x 61%
Pac-Land 1985 47244x 63%
Pac-Man 1980 56498x 74%
Pac-Mania 1988 27318x 74%
Palamedes 1990 10336x 59%
Paperboy 1984 53353x 69%
Paperboy 2 1991 7931x 62%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 18113x 71%
Penguin Wars 1985 12773x 79%
Pinball 1984 31338x 69%
Pipe Mania 1988 14395x 79%
Pirates! 1984 5343x 73%
Pooyan 1982 36095x 76%
Popeye 1982 89894x 73%
Predator 1987 12509x 50%
Prince of Persia 1989 24022x 71%
Pro Wrestling 1986 22477x 51%
Punch-Out!! 1987 404946x 83%
Q*bert 1982 33000x 59%
Qix 1981 10400x 60%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 48338x 74%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 21284x 70%
Rad Racer 1987 32380x 68%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 9820x 59%
Rainbow Islands 1987 3956x 63%
Rambo 1988 6956x 46%
Rampage 1986 24046x 75%
Renegade 1986 16892x 65%
River City Ransom 1989 21087x 76%
Road Fighter 1984 156312x 68%
Road Runner 1985 19877x 69%
Robin Hood 1991 13560x 72%
RoboCop 1988 24264x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 12263x 68%
RoboCop 3 1992 7312x 66%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 5397x 60%
RoboWarrior 1987 12652x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 10100x 77%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 5339x 55%
Rush’n Attack 1986 27684x 72%
Rygar 1986 19979x 62%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 350663x 70%
Sasa 1984 5466x 64%
Section-Z 1985 9695x 63%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 15451x 71%
Shadowgate 1987 14812x 73%
Shanghai 1986 9761x 60%
Side Pocket 1987 14827x 67%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 31726x 65%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 16174x 51%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 10011x 63%
Skate or Die 1988 19815x 72%
Ski or Die 1990 16339x 69%
Sky Destroyer 1985 24767x 77%
Sky Kid 1985 9997x 74%
Slalom 1987 9812x 58%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 7974x 69%
Snake's Revenge 1990 3576x 48%
Snow Brothers 1990 46099x 69%
Soccer 1985 29890x 70%
Solitaire 1992 2326x 43%
Solomon’s Key 1986 30337x 79%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 11819x 76%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 31540x 64%
Space Invaders 1978 21959x 67%
Spelunker 1983 24391x 68%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 26686x 71%
Splatterhouse 1989 9466x 64%
Spy Hunter 1983 21901x 72%
Spy vs Spy 1984 28196x 71%
Star Force 1984 37287x 79%
Star Luster 1985 8456x 67%
Star Soldier 1986 10668x 72%
Star Wars 1987 12796x 59%
Star Wars 1991 17326x 75%
StarTropics 1990 10433x 69%
Stinger 1987 10161x 61%
Strider 1989 10387x 74%
Super Arabian 1983 19836x 69%
Super C 1990 91177x 76%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 3005292x 72%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 402282x 67%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 938499x 71%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 268113x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 20672x 56%
Super Robin Hood 1986 21266x 74%
Super Sprint 1986 19533x 69%
Superman 1987 4877x 68%
Sweet Home 1989 15552x 64%
Sword Master 1992 8271x 65%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 42616x 72%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 45102x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 45103x 77%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 45372x 77%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 36592x 81%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 77719x 69%
Tennis 1983 71710x 75%
Terminator 2 1991 18872x 65%
Tetris 1989 307355x 80%
Tetris 1988 39193x 78%
Tetris 1986 45502x 65%
Tetris 2 1993 8682x 65%
The Battle of Olympus 1988 3618x 67%
The Black Onyx 1984 5014x 54%
The Flintstones 1991 29696x 74%
The Goonies 1986 31479x 69%
The Goonies II 1987 4890x 61%
The Jungle Book 1994 18164x 66%
The Karate Kid 1987 21974x 71%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 351988x 78%
The Terminator 1992 16366x 70%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 17142x 79%
Thexder 1985 2088x 60%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 56150x 70%
Toobin’ 1988 7876x 70%
Top Gun 1987 9858x 54%
Total Recall 1990 6382x 67%
Track & Field 1984 91634x 68%
TwinBee 1985 38773x 75%
Urban Champion 1984 28113x 69%
Vindicators 1988 11776x 59%
Volguard II 1985 7103x 64%
Volleyball 1986 20068x 68%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 12181x 75%
Wacky Races 1992 11836x 56%
Wario’s Woods 1994 24654x 67%
Warpman 1985 12336x 64%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 8392x 59%
Wild Ball 1988 27713x 53%
Wild Gunman 1984 4929x 58%
Willow 1989 14270x 69%
Winter Games 1985 12431x 56%
Wizardry 1981 13057x 64%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 17814x 82%
Wrecking Crew 1985 37386x 70%
Xenophobe 1988 11063x 63%
Xevious 1982 33137x 78%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 64532x 71%
Yo! Noid 1990 19298x 68%
Young Indiana Jones ... 1992 925x 57%
Zelda II 1987 59961x 72%
Zippy Race 1985 31372x 65%
Zoda’s Revenge 1994 1383x 73%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Manual: Nintendo_NES.pdf
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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