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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 23935x 63%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 5289x 51%
115 in 1 1992 2883x 53%
1942 1984 60507x 70%
1943 1987 43589x 67%
20 in 1 1991 6069x 63%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 8454x 57%
31 in 1 1991 8789x 75%
42 in 1 1991 8534x 35%
64 in 1 1991 29356x 65%
8 Eyes 1988 27428x 61%
Addams Family, The 1991 17723x 65%
Adventure Island 1986 112424x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 42281x 73%
Adventure Island III 1992 31858x 73%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 46868x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 20106x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 21256x 77%
Alien 3 1992 10655x 81%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 11086x 74%
Altered Beast 1988 8475x 62%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 27898x 68%
Archon 1983 12774x 70%
Argus 1986 7009x 68%
Arkanoid 1986 75674x 72%
Arkanoid II 1987 15490x 70%
B-Wings 1984 25141x 64%
Back to the Future 1989 13889x 48%
Bad Dudes 1988 13143x 52%
Badminton 1988 5867x 80%
Ballblazer 1985 986x 30%
Balloon Fight 1984 57609x 74%
Baseball 1983 72352x 72%
Baseball Stars 1989 21933x 77%
Batman 1989 42409x 82%
Batman Returns 1992 336x 60%
Battle Chess 1988 20883x 62%
Battle City 1985 482249x 76%
Battleship 1993 18430x 78%
Battletoads 1991 37734x 77%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 14784x 76%
Binary Land 1985 21938x 71%
Bionic Commando 1987 13610x 76%
Blades of Steel 1988 44104x 84%
Blaster Master 1988 11286x 72%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 8239x 51%
Bomberman 1985 887495x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 146459x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 35425x 66%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 28423x 55%
Bubble Bobble 1986 60442x 67%
Bugs Bunny 1989 21960x 66%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 40397x 68%
BurgerTime 1982 40752x 75%
Caesars Palace 1992 460x 23%
California Games 1987 9284x 51%
Castelian 1987 10008x 64%
Castlequest 1985 6404x 87%
Castlevania 1986 54373x 81%
Castlevania II 1987 30975x 75%
Castlevania III 1989 24537x 79%
Chack’n Pop 1983 12645x 57%
Challenger 1985 8765x 71%
Championship Bowling 1989 12560x 69%
Championship Karate 1992 3703x 60%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 38466x 80%
Chase H.Q. 1988 25958x 64%
Chessmaster 1989 10087x 75%
Chiller 1986 9215x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 57324x 75%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 31017x 77%
Choplifter 1982 9418x 69%
Chubby Cherub 1985 2713x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 163198x 71%
City Connection 1985 18505x 72%
Cliffhanger 1993 6421x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 16674x 69%
Commando 1985 19561x 63%
Contra 1987 516890x 74%
Contra Force 1992 45000x 73%
Crazy Climber 1980 4282x 40%
Crystalis 1990 20300x 67%
Darkwing Duck 1992 10163x 81%
Defender II 1981 13367x 82%
Devil World 1984 11148x 65%
Die Hard 1991 10283x 81%
Dig Dug 1982 346923x 75%
Dig Dug II 1985 23444x 84%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 45168x 74%
Donkey Kong 1981 157102x 74%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 35059x 72%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 88607x 67%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 23833x 66%
Door Door 1985 10779x 75%
Double Dragon 1987 67413x 63%
Double Dragon II 1990 46710x 75%
Double Dragon III 1990 30147x 75%
Double Dribble 1987 38033x 74%
Dough Boy 1984 5037x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 844312x 72%
Dracula 1993 11138x 83%
Dragon Spirit 1987 9718x 86%
Dragon Warrior 1986 30090x 82%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 8525x 68%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 2542x 83%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 12912x 65%
Duck Hunt 1984 2387x 81%
Duck Tales 1989 46100x 63%
Egypt 1991 470x 30%
Elevator Action 1983 27125x 73%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 3449x 60%
Elite 1984 2642x 80%
Excitebike 1984 121211x 73%
Exerion 1983 11957x 64%
F-1 Race 1984 29381x 54%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 15281x 71%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 12656x 75%
Faxanadu 1987 10269x 68%
Felix the Cat 1992 80869x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 4599x 41%
Field Combat 1985 12607x 80%
Final Fantasy 1987 42103x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 16635x 76%
Final Fantasy III 1990 13923x 81%
Final Lap 1987 7750x 52%
Flappy 1983 10936x 80%
Formation Z 1984 10155x 73%
Friday the 13th 1989 29236x 58%
Front Line 1982 18256x 76%
Galaga 1981 268072x 76%
Galaxian 1979 109425x 70%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 3097x 71%
Gauntlet 1985 7156x 70%
Gauntlet II 1986 6832x 70%
Geimos 1985 6028x 39%
Ghostbusters 1984 11321x 60%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 32292x 69%
Goal! 1988 18898x 81%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 14959x 76%
Golf 1984 18697x 72%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 9442x 68%
Gradius 1985 33023x 77%
Gradius II 1988 6400x 69%
Guerrilla War 1987 12525x 84%
Gun.Smoke 1987 20630x 74%
Gyromite 1985 11525x 58%
Gyruss 1983 14419x 72%
Hello Kitty World 1992 986x 78%
Hogan's Alley 1984 520x 87%
Home Alone 1991 14316x 75%
Honey Peach 1990 13032x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 21046x 41%
Hudson Hawk 1991 8862x 68%
Ice Climber 1985 98554x 73%
Ice Hockey 1988 30359x 71%
Igo 1987 7394x 61%
Ikari Warriors 1986 16691x 67%
Ikki 1985 9666x 67%
Indiana Jones 1987 8940x 63%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 10833x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 14737x 73%
Ironman 1989 8077x 57%
Jackal 1986 26566x 78%
Jaws 1987 17423x 65%
Jeopardy! 1988 4400x 54%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 3263x 56%
Journey to Silius 1990 8922x 68%
Joust 1982 18551x 67%
Jurassic Park 1993 17454x 75%
Kabuki 1990 5613x 64%
Karate Champ 1984 23152x 63%
Karateka 1984 27590x 65%
Kickle Cubicle 1988 861x 64%
Kid Icarus 1986 32322x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 12865x 81%
King’s Quest V 1990 12016x 77%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 49378x 82%
Knight Move 1990 3917x 55%
Knight Rider 1988 6544x 45%
Knightmare II 1987 3062x 79%
Krion Conquest 1990 9447x 88%
Kung Fu 2 1991 13566x 69%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 75369x 77%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 38189x 77%
Lemmings 1991 17007x 59%
Life Force 1986 15237x 77%
Lion King, The 1994 12689x 71%
Little Nemo 1990 13788x 77%
Lode Runner 1983 188467x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 29235x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 19335x 71%
Mach Rider 1985 17526x 60%
Macross 1985 12124x 72%
Magic Jewelry 1990 95694x 77%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 9852x 59%
Mahjong 1983 8586x 52%
Maniac Mansion 1987 13641x 80%
Mappy 1983 210620x 81%
Mappy Kids 1989 1725x 79%
Mappy Land 1986 20479x 80%
Marble Madness 1984 9528x 58%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 19189x 70%
Mario Bros. 1983 132699x 72%
Mario is Missing! 1992 13816x 68%
Maxi-15 Pack 1992 718x 70%
Mega Man 1987 66046x 73%
Mega Man 2 1988 49703x 78%
Mega Man 3 1990 30013x 79%
Mega Man 4 1991 20784x 77%
Mega Man 5 1992 19393x 76%
Mega Man 6 1993 19571x 76%
Metal Gear 1987 20487x 72%
Metroid 1986 40856x 78%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 13554x 71%
Micro Machines 1991 20227x 78%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 10535x 73%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 23324x 82%
Millipede 1982 11289x 64%
Mission: Impossible 1990 11065x 69%
Monopoly 1987 37096x 83%
Monster Party 1989 3645x 78%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 13455x 82%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 38592x 72%
NARC 1988 8045x 52%
New Zealand Story 1989 11692x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 18130x 65%
Nightshade 1992 612x 32%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 53976x 79%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 16567x 83%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 20398x 86%
Ninja-Kun 1984 11682x 73%
North & South 1989 15011x 74%
Nuts & Milk 1984 37035x 76%
Operation Wolf 1989 8840x 63%
Othello 1988 13163x 72%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 12933x 64%
Pac-Land 1985 39364x 65%
Pac-Man 1980 44108x 75%
Pac-Mania 1988 23649x 74%
Palamedes 1990 8533x 65%
Paperboy 1984 40885x 72%
Paperboy 2 1991 5855x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 15106x 73%
Penguin Wars 1985 10606x 77%
Pinball 1984 25786x 71%
Pipe Mania 1988 12090x 79%
Pirates! 1984 1977x 63%
Pooyan 1982 30776x 76%
Popeye 1982 76960x 74%
Predator 1987 10516x 50%
Prince of Persia 1989 19405x 68%
Pro Wrestling 1986 16704x 57%
Punch-Out!! 1987 276536x 83%
Q*bert 1982 22913x 61%
Qix 1981 7705x 61%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 36199x 77%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 16018x 77%
Rad Racer 1987 25937x 71%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 7612x 60%
Rainbow Islands 1987 577x 75%
Rambo 1988 4136x 35%
Rampage 1986 16980x 67%
Renegade 1986 13825x 76%
River City Ransom 1989 15698x 79%
Road Fighter 1984 129881x 69%
Road Runner 1985 15691x 70%
Robin Hood 1991 11402x 84%
RoboCop 1988 19473x 72%
RoboCop 2 1991 9249x 71%
RoboCop 3 1992 5135x 74%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 4091x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 10949x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 8170x 79%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 3713x 78%
Rush’n Attack 1986 21350x 73%
Rygar 1986 15170x 59%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 298628x 71%
Sasa 1984 3721x 68%
Section-Z 1985 7891x 70%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 10006x 69%
Shadowgate 1987 11789x 81%
Shanghai 1986 8317x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 10842x 58%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 25852x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 12853x 46%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 7884x 58%
Skate or Die 1988 15694x 76%
Ski or Die 1990 13866x 72%
Sky Destroyer 1985 20604x 79%
Sky Kid 1985 7835x 71%
Slalom 1987 7845x 61%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 4900x 86%
Snake's Revenge 1990 1773x 65%
Snow Brothers 1990 29196x 73%
Soccer 1985 23479x 71%
Solitaire 1992 790x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 24011x 81%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 9729x 80%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 25383x 64%
Space Invaders 1978 13606x 66%
Spelunker 1983 20406x 67%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 20306x 74%
Splatterhouse 1989 7154x 87%
Spy Hunter 1983 16062x 77%
Spy vs Spy 1984 21398x 72%
Star Force 1984 31149x 81%
Star Luster 1985 6442x 66%
Star Soldier 1986 8363x 72%
Star Wars 1987 10014x 59%
Star Wars 1991 13376x 75%
StarTropics 1990 7167x 63%
Stinger 1987 8540x 85%
Strider 1989 8707x 80%
Super Arabian 1983 16618x 70%
Super C 1990 67657x 77%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2370800x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 301195x 65%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 699616x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 210244x 69%
Super Pitfall 1987 17581x 56%
Super Robin Hood 1986 18097x 72%
Super Sprint 1986 15837x 69%
Superman 1987 2068x 71%
Sweet Home 1989 12089x 66%
Sword Master 1992 6249x 56%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 31422x 73%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 35268x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 33623x 79%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 31895x 77%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 25692x 84%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 62280x 70%
Tennis 1983 57184x 77%
Terminator 2 1991 15079x 64%
Tetris 1989 75853x 82%
Tetris 1988 22569x 80%
Tetris 1986 38661x 66%
Tetris 2 1993 4317x 62%
The Black Onyx 1984 3151x 66%
The Flintstones 1991 24393x 72%
The Goonies 1986 24589x 71%
The Goonies II 1987 2581x 69%
The Jungle Book 1994 13415x 67%
The Karate Kid 1987 17677x 74%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 256957x 80%
The Terminator 1992 13414x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 13650x 85%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 37312x 75%
Toobin’ 1988 5998x 60%
Top Gun 1987 2731x 63%
Total Recall 1990 4301x 86%
Track & Field 1984 72762x 68%
TwinBee 1985 30512x 76%
Urban Champion 1984 23509x 72%
Vindicators 1988 9853x 63%
Volguard II 1985 5739x 73%
Volleyball 1986 16709x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 9016x 74%
Wacky Races 1992 8160x 67%
Wario’s Woods 1994 20345x 70%
Warpman 1985 10373x 66%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 5291x 70%
Wild Ball 1988 17636x 51%
Willow 1989 11253x 70%
Winter Games 1985 10177x 62%
Wizardry 1981 10231x 61%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 13289x 84%
Wrecking Crew 1985 31073x 70%
Xenophobe 1988 9302x 67%
Xevious 1982 25880x 81%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 49214x 70%
Yo! Noid 1990 14693x 70%
Zelda II 1987 45484x 70%
Zippy Race 1985 26683x 62%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Manual: Nintendo_NES.pdf
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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