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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 22262x 63%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 4722x 51%
1942 1984 56113x 70%
1943 1987 40770x 68%
20 in 1 1991 5285x 55%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 7530x 60%
31 in 1 1991 7515x 73%
42 in 1 1991 7297x 33%
64 in 1 1991 24467x 64%
8 Eyes 1988 26139x 61%
Addams Family, The 1991 16641x 69%
Adventure Island 1986 104007x 69%
Adventure Island II 1991 39937x 74%
Adventure Island III 1992 29326x 74%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 44216x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 18991x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 20278x 76%
Alien 3 1992 10109x 74%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 8149x 77%
Altered Beast 1988 7942x 60%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 26497x 67%
Archon 1983 11953x 68%
Argus 1986 6403x 64%
Arkanoid 1986 72157x 72%
Arkanoid II 1987 14683x 70%
B-Wings 1984 23803x 64%
Back to the Future 1989 12918x 47%
Bad Dudes 1988 11975x 55%
Badminton 1988 5473x 80%
Ballblazer 1985 745x 30%
Balloon Fight 1984 54402x 74%
Baseball 1983 68479x 74%
Baseball Stars 1989 19935x 78%
Batman 1989 40253x 82%
Battle Chess 1988 19821x 62%
Battle City 1985 450308x 76%
Battleship 1993 17571x 79%
Battletoads 1991 34565x 76%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 13285x 76%
Binary Land 1985 21095x 70%
Bionic Commando 1987 12893x 74%
Blades of Steel 1988 41925x 84%
Blaster Master 1988 10368x 72%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 7674x 51%
Bomberman 1985 831482x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 142734x 72%
Boulder Dash 1984 33384x 68%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 26446x 52%
Bubble Bobble 1986 54166x 66%
Bugs Bunny 1989 19784x 68%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 38599x 68%
BurgerTime 1982 36539x 76%
California Games 1987 8690x 51%
Castelian 1987 9574x 62%
Castlequest 1985 5132x 89%
Castlevania 1986 47401x 80%
Castlevania II 1987 29317x 75%
Castlevania III 1989 22487x 77%
Chack’n Pop 1983 12134x 54%
Challenger 1985 8302x 67%
Championship Bowling 1989 11953x 69%
Championship Karate 1992 3396x 56%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 37106x 80%
Chase H.Q. 1988 24805x 63%
Chessmaster 1989 9511x 74%
Chiller 1986 8669x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 53910x 76%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 29225x 78%
Choplifter 1982 8955x 69%
Chubby Cherub 1985 2407x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 154213x 71%
City Connection 1985 17475x 74%
Cliffhanger 1993 6011x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 15957x 68%
Commando 1985 18373x 61%
Contra 1987 476356x 74%
Contra Force 1992 42497x 73%
Crazy Climber 1980 3804x 40%
Crystalis 1990 19163x 66%
Darkwing Duck 1992 8850x 79%
Defender II 1981 12694x 84%
Devil World 1984 10542x 65%
Die Hard 1991 9626x 81%
Dig Dug 1982 326761x 75%
Dig Dug II 1985 22013x 83%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 43051x 78%
Donkey Kong 1981 148258x 74%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 33373x 72%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 84436x 67%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 22917x 67%
Door Door 1985 10103x 81%
Double Dragon 1987 63431x 63%
Double Dragon II 1990 43272x 74%
Double Dragon III 1990 28577x 74%
Double Dribble 1987 36061x 75%
Dough Boy 1984 4716x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 797697x 72%
Dracula 1993 10630x 60%
Dragon Spirit 1987 8536x 89%
Dragon Warrior 1986 27914x 83%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 7839x 68%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 2032x 83%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 12046x 70%
Duck Tales 1989 43380x 63%
Elevator Action 1983 25369x 71%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 2959x 54%
Elite 1984 2014x 76%
Excitebike 1984 115756x 73%
Exerion 1983 11486x 64%
F-1 Race 1984 28014x 56%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 14596x 71%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 11881x 74%
Faxanadu 1987 9637x 72%
Felix the Cat 1992 77697x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 4078x 38%
Field Combat 1985 12005x 80%
Final Fantasy 1987 39040x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 15663x 77%
Final Fantasy III 1990 13025x 84%
Final Lap 1987 7195x 47%
Flappy 1983 10171x 80%
Formation Z 1984 9668x 76%
Friday the 13th 1989 27430x 59%
Front Line 1982 17408x 77%
Galaga 1981 253076x 76%
Galaxian 1979 103004x 71%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 2722x 77%
Gauntlet 1985 6309x 72%
Gauntlet II 1986 6375x 68%
Geimos 1985 5707x 40%
Ghostbusters 1984 10485x 58%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 28989x 71%
Goal! 1988 17910x 81%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 14194x 76%
Golf 1984 17686x 72%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 9107x 74%
Gradius 1985 30582x 76%
Gradius II 1988 5931x 72%
Guerrilla War 1987 11686x 89%
Gun.Smoke 1987 18969x 74%
Gyromite 1985 10884x 70%
Gyruss 1983 13632x 73%
Hello Kitty World 1992 660x 80%
Home Alone 1991 13508x 79%
Honey Peach 1990 12464x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 20259x 39%
Hudson Hawk 1991 8442x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 92519x 72%
Ice Hockey 1988 28788x 73%
Igo 1987 7121x 61%
Ikari Warriors 1986 15602x 67%
Ikki 1985 9330x 67%
Indiana Jones 1987 8551x 62%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 10230x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 14108x 73%
Ironman 1989 7520x 57%
Jackal 1986 24637x 78%
Jaws 1987 16318x 69%
Jeopardy! 1988 3769x 49%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 2844x 53%
Journey to Silius 1990 8426x 67%
Joust 1982 17433x 68%
Jurassic Park 1993 16660x 75%
Kabuki 1990 5225x 63%
Karate Champ 1984 22127x 63%
Karateka 1984 26096x 64%
Kickle Cubicle 1988 530x 64%
Kid Icarus 1986 30393x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 12258x 79%
King’s Quest V 1990 11456x 79%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 45601x 81%
Knight Move 1990 3665x 60%
Knight Rider 1988 5907x 39%
Knightmare II 1987 2615x 80%
Krion Conquest 1990 8913x 88%
Kung Fu 2 1991 12852x 65%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 71829x 77%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 35973x 77%
Lemmings 1991 16178x 63%
Life Force 1986 14208x 76%
Lion King, The 1994 11964x 72%
Little Nemo 1990 12838x 79%
Lode Runner 1983 182222x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 27997x 68%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 18416x 71%
Mach Rider 1985 16659x 58%
Macross 1985 11498x 70%
Magic Jewelry 1990 90956x 77%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 9476x 61%
Mahjong 1983 8079x 52%
Maniac Mansion 1987 12845x 76%
Mappy 1983 200208x 81%
Mappy Kids 1989 1258x 78%
Mappy Land 1986 19717x 80%
Marble Madness 1984 8676x 57%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 18130x 69%
Mario Bros. 1983 123652x 73%
Mario is Missing! 1992 12991x 69%
Mega Man 1987 60119x 73%
Mega Man 2 1988 45273x 78%
Mega Man 3 1990 27739x 79%
Mega Man 4 1991 19232x 75%
Mega Man 5 1992 17843x 73%
Mega Man 6 1993 18047x 71%
Metal Gear 1987 18807x 73%
Metroid 1986 37579x 79%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 12646x 66%
Micro Machines 1991 18822x 77%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 10039x 75%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 21904x 80%
Millipede 1982 10672x 63%
Mission: Impossible 1990 10536x 69%
Monopoly 1987 35332x 84%
Monster Party 1989 3136x 73%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 12661x 82%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 36617x 72%
NARC 1988 7431x 55%
New Zealand Story 1989 11020x 57%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 17138x 64%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 50976x 80%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 15759x 82%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 19258x 90%
Ninja-Kun 1984 11148x 76%
North & South 1989 14290x 74%
Nuts & Milk 1984 35785x 75%
Operation Wolf 1989 8436x 62%
Othello 1988 12535x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 12155x 65%
Pac-Land 1985 37423x 65%
Pac-Man 1980 41174x 76%
Pac-Mania 1988 22568x 73%
Palamedes 1990 8146x 65%
Paperboy 1984 37844x 72%
Paperboy 2 1991 5419x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 14519x 75%
Penguin Wars 1985 10166x 77%
Pinball 1984 24521x 69%
Pipe Mania 1988 11639x 79%
Pirates! 1984 1416x 63%
Pooyan 1982 29487x 77%
Popeye 1982 73900x 74%
Predator 1987 10072x 50%
Prince of Persia 1989 18482x 69%
Pro Wrestling 1986 15485x 57%
Punch-Out!! 1987 244450x 83%
Q*bert 1982 21071x 64%
Qix 1981 7178x 58%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 34087x 76%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 15041x 77%
Rad Racer 1987 24489x 72%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 7098x 60%
Rambo 1988 3611x 37%
Rampage 1986 15737x 70%
Renegade 1986 13155x 76%
River City Ransom 1989 14636x 76%
Road Fighter 1984 124170x 68%
Road Runner 1985 14757x 73%
Robin Hood 1991 10900x 83%
RoboCop 1988 18384x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 8578x 66%
RoboCop 3 1992 4633x 75%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 3846x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 10611x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 7739x 76%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 3352x 78%
Rush’n Attack 1986 20016x 72%
Rygar 1986 14213x 60%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 286858x 71%
Sasa 1984 3334x 69%
Section-Z 1985 7532x 69%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 9060x 69%
Shadowgate 1987 11077x 84%
Shanghai 1986 8026x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 9832x 45%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 24482x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 12158x 41%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 7426x 61%
Skate or Die 1988 14853x 79%
Ski or Die 1990 13287x 72%
Sky Destroyer 1985 19664x 80%
Sky Kid 1985 7330x 71%
Slalom 1987 7299x 57%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 4129x 84%
Snake's Revenge 1990 1416x 68%
Snow Brothers 1990 26777x 74%
Soccer 1985 22013x 71%
Solomon’s Key 1986 22441x 82%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 9244x 77%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 24085x 62%
Space Invaders 1978 12709x 62%
Spelunker 1983 19504x 69%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 18933x 75%
Splatterhouse 1989 6634x 84%
Spy Hunter 1983 14982x 79%
Spy vs Spy 1984 19978x 72%
Star Force 1984 29820x 81%
Star Luster 1985 5980x 63%
Star Soldier 1986 7900x 71%
Star Wars 1987 9347x 57%
Star Wars 1991 12538x 74%
StarTropics 1990 6602x 63%
Stinger 1987 8080x 85%
Strider 1989 8376x 80%
Super Arabian 1983 15898x 70%
Super C 1990 62618x 78%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2282395x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 281067x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 660754x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 198222x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 16716x 55%
Super Robin Hood 1986 17335x 73%
Super Sprint 1986 15024x 69%
Superman 1987 659x 76%
Sweet Home 1989 11315x 67%
Sword Master 1992 5749x 55%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 29564x 72%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 33272x 73%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 31523x 79%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 26604x 76%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 23189x 85%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 59289x 70%
Tennis 1983 53854x 76%
Terminator 2 1991 14292x 62%
Tetris 1989 34568x 84%
Tetris 1988 18551x 82%
Tetris 1986 37164x 68%
Tetris 2 1993 3614x 59%
The Black Onyx 1984 2740x 65%
The Flintstones 1991 23161x 71%
The Goonies 1986 23213x 70%
The Goonies II 1987 2068x 63%
The Jungle Book 1994 12477x 64%
The Karate Kid 1987 16918x 74%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 239145x 80%
The Terminator 1992 12854x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 12842x 85%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 34059x 78%
Toobin’ 1988 5527x 60%
Top Gun 1987 1913x 56%
Total Recall 1990 3764x 86%
Track & Field 1984 68128x 69%
TwinBee 1985 28725x 77%
Urban Champion 1984 22485x 73%
Vindicators 1988 9469x 63%
Volguard II 1985 5444x 73%
Volleyball 1986 15957x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 8378x 74%
Wacky Races 1992 7410x 60%
Wario’s Woods 1994 19395x 68%
Warpman 1985 9957x 66%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 4463x 69%
Wild Ball 1988 15888x 49%
Willow 1989 10632x 70%
Winter Games 1985 9667x 63%
Wizardry 1981 9507x 61%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 12406x 85%
Wrecking Crew 1985 29710x 70%
Xenophobe 1988 8907x 67%
Xevious 1982 24244x 81%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 46426x 69%
Yo! Noid 1990 13717x 68%
Zelda II 1987 42790x 70%
Zippy Race 1985 25616x 61%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Manual: Nintendo_NES.pdf
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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