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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 20916x 65%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 4198x 51%
1942 1984 52642x 70%
1943 1987 38338x 67%
20 in 1 1991 4638x 65%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 6754x 61%
31 in 1 1991 6446x 75%
42 in 1 1991 6221x 34%
64 in 1 1991 20931x 64%
8 Eyes 1988 25063x 61%
Addams Family, The 1991 15609x 69%
Adventure Island 1986 97326x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 38366x 74%
Adventure Island III 1992 27577x 73%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 41914x 69%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 18080x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 19271x 78%
Alien 3 1992 9579x 71%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 5641x 76%
Altered Beast 1988 7496x 61%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 25316x 67%
Archon 1983 11226x 68%
Argus 1986 5854x 59%
Arkanoid 1986 68884x 72%
Arkanoid II 1987 13837x 69%
B-Wings 1984 22645x 65%
Back to the Future 1989 12117x 49%
Bad Dudes 1988 10956x 56%
Badminton 1988 5141x 80%
Ballblazer 1985 495x 30%
Balloon Fight 1984 51404x 75%
Baseball 1983 64514x 74%
Baseball Stars 1989 18045x 77%
Batman 1989 38392x 82%
Battle Chess 1988 18880x 61%
Battle City 1985 425324x 76%
Battleship 1993 16842x 80%
Battletoads 1991 32053x 75%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 12096x 77%
Binary Land 1985 20292x 70%
Bionic Commando 1987 12261x 69%
Blades of Steel 1988 40028x 85%
Blaster Master 1988 9595x 75%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 7182x 51%
Bomberman 1985 785120x 66%
Bomberman II 1991 139432x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 31542x 68%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 25008x 52%
Bubble Bobble 1986 49684x 66%
Bugs Bunny 1989 17950x 66%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 36982x 69%
BurgerTime 1982 33479x 76%
California Games 1987 8289x 51%
Castelian 1987 9151x 62%
Castlequest 1985 3569x 87%
Castlevania 1986 41827x 83%
Castlevania II 1987 27628x 73%
Castlevania III 1989 20255x 79%
Chack’n Pop 1983 11513x 61%
Challenger 1985 7884x 65%
Championship Bowling 1989 11451x 68%
Championship Karate 1992 3113x 56%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 35931x 80%
Chase H.Q. 1988 23661x 62%
Chessmaster 1989 9081x 73%
Chiller 1986 8109x 53%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 51093x 76%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 27780x 77%
Choplifter 1982 8571x 69%
Chubby Cherub 1985 2063x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 146665x 72%
City Connection 1985 16554x 73%
Cliffhanger 1993 5605x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 15296x 70%
Commando 1985 17372x 59%
Contra 1987 440378x 74%
Contra Force 1992 40569x 74%
Crazy Climber 1980 3358x 35%
Crystalis 1990 18258x 67%
Darkwing Duck 1992 7767x 85%
Defender II 1981 12100x 86%
Devil World 1984 10003x 65%
Die Hard 1991 9073x 81%
Dig Dug 1982 307357x 76%
Dig Dug II 1985 20728x 83%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 41479x 78%
Donkey Kong 1981 141709x 74%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 32007x 70%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 81218x 66%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 22201x 68%
Door Door 1985 9510x 81%
Double Dragon 1987 60056x 64%
Double Dragon II 1990 40476x 73%
Double Dragon III 1990 27177x 73%
Double Dribble 1987 34491x 75%
Dough Boy 1984 4401x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 762370x 71%
Dracula 1993 10197x 60%
Dragon Spirit 1987 7764x 88%
Dragon Warrior 1986 26180x 83%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 7120x 68%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 1680x 80%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 11437x 74%
Duck Tales 1989 40697x 62%
Elevator Action 1983 23940x 71%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 2545x 62%
Elite 1984 1197x 72%
Excitebike 1984 110320x 73%
Exerion 1983 11026x 64%
F-1 Race 1984 26887x 57%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 13992x 71%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 11244x 75%
Faxanadu 1987 9079x 75%
Felix the Cat 1992 75425x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 3575x 36%
Field Combat 1985 11487x 80%
Final Fantasy 1987 36723x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 14937x 76%
Final Fantasy III 1990 12200x 85%
Final Lap 1987 6669x 47%
Flappy 1983 9570x 80%
Formation Z 1984 9314x 76%
Friday the 13th 1989 25339x 56%
Front Line 1982 16664x 78%
Galaga 1981 242560x 76%
Galaxian 1979 97196x 71%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 2348x 72%
Gauntlet 1985 5666x 66%
Gauntlet II 1986 5971x 66%
Geimos 1985 5365x 40%
Ghostbusters 1984 9714x 63%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 26467x 71%
Goal! 1988 17027x 80%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 13633x 76%
Golf 1984 16705x 71%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 8682x 74%
Gradius 1985 28591x 78%
Gradius II 1988 5414x 73%
Guerrilla War 1987 10889x 87%
Gun.Smoke 1987 17616x 75%
Gyromite 1985 10278x 72%
Gyruss 1983 12918x 74%
Home Alone 1991 12735x 79%
Honey Peach 1990 11926x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 19536x 38%
Hudson Hawk 1991 8055x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 87665x 73%
Ice Hockey 1988 27270x 71%
Igo 1987 6828x 64%
Ikari Warriors 1986 14755x 67%
Ikki 1985 9034x 71%
Indiana Jones 1987 8126x 62%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 9735x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 13484x 74%
Ironman 1989 7005x 70%
Jackal 1986 22978x 79%
Jaws 1987 15494x 70%
Jeopardy! 1988 3208x 48%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 2446x 58%
Journey to Silius 1990 8013x 67%
Joust 1982 16417x 70%
Jurassic Park 1993 15908x 75%
Kabuki 1990 4899x 62%
Karate Champ 1984 21252x 65%
Karateka 1984 24800x 64%
Kid Icarus 1986 29054x 81%
Kings of the Beach 1988 11703x 79%
King’s Quest V 1990 10951x 81%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 43052x 80%
Knight Move 1990 3359x 60%
Knight Rider 1988 5304x 36%
Knightmare II 1987 2188x 73%
Krion Conquest 1990 8495x 88%
Kung Fu 2 1991 12242x 70%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 68913x 78%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 34043x 78%
Lemmings 1991 15487x 64%
Life Force 1986 13408x 75%
Lion King, The 1994 11263x 76%
Little Nemo 1990 12020x 85%
Lode Runner 1983 175248x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 26964x 68%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 17463x 71%
Mach Rider 1985 15555x 59%
Macross 1985 10954x 69%
Magic Jewelry 1990 86557x 78%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 9174x 61%
Mahjong 1983 7680x 53%
Maniac Mansion 1987 12190x 70%
Mappy 1983 190762x 80%
Mappy Kids 1989 834x 78%
Mappy Land 1986 19109x 78%
Marble Madness 1984 8123x 62%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 17469x 71%
Mario Bros. 1983 117083x 73%
Mario is Missing! 1992 12364x 69%
Mega Man 1987 54997x 73%
Mega Man 2 1988 41495x 77%
Mega Man 3 1990 25631x 78%
Mega Man 4 1991 17918x 72%
Mega Man 5 1992 16446x 73%
Mega Man 6 1993 16742x 70%
Metal Gear 1987 17683x 75%
Metroid 1986 35287x 79%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 11926x 65%
Micro Machines 1991 17632x 78%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 9584x 75%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 20815x 80%
Millipede 1982 10150x 64%
Mission: Impossible 1990 10062x 69%
Monopoly 1987 33816x 84%
Monster Party 1989 2667x 73%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 12004x 82%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 35117x 72%
NARC 1988 6904x 53%
New Zealand Story 1989 10408x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 16236x 61%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 47885x 82%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 15014x 82%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 18048x 89%
Ninja-Kun 1984 10627x 76%
North & South 1989 13673x 73%
Nuts & Milk 1984 34666x 76%
Operation Wolf 1989 8083x 62%
Othello 1988 12084x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 11507x 68%
Pac-Land 1985 35905x 66%
Pac-Man 1980 38688x 77%
Pac-Mania 1988 21559x 73%
Palamedes 1990 7768x 66%
Paperboy 1984 35161x 71%
Paperboy 2 1991 5013x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 13910x 74%
Penguin Wars 1985 9790x 79%
Pinball 1984 23325x 70%
Pipe Mania 1988 11177x 79%
Pirates! 1984 982x 63%
Pooyan 1982 28367x 77%
Popeye 1982 71061x 75%
Predator 1987 9673x 49%
Prince of Persia 1989 17686x 68%
Pro Wrestling 1986 14531x 58%
Punch-Out!! 1987 226375x 84%
Q*bert 1982 19654x 67%
Qix 1981 6741x 58%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 32112x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 14159x 79%
Rad Racer 1987 23356x 73%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 6719x 61%
Rambo 1988 3071x 35%
Rampage 1986 14734x 70%
Renegade 1986 12610x 76%
River City Ransom 1989 13751x 81%
Road Fighter 1984 119048x 69%
Road Runner 1985 13839x 72%
Robin Hood 1991 10455x 83%
RoboCop 1988 17496x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 8020x 71%
RoboCop 3 1992 4200x 75%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 3581x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 10290x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 7355x 75%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 2930x 78%
Rush’n Attack 1986 18906x 73%
Rygar 1986 13413x 60%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 278446x 71%
Sasa 1984 2975x 63%
Section-Z 1985 7199x 76%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 8177x 70%
Shadowgate 1987 10524x 83%
Shanghai 1986 7728x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 8872x 50%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 23407x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 11563x 41%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 6994x 58%
Skate or Die 1988 14135x 80%
Ski or Die 1990 12823x 77%
Sky Destroyer 1985 18855x 80%
Sky Kid 1985 6794x 71%
Slalom 1987 6809x 60%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 3599x 84%
Snake's Revenge 1990 1085x 68%
Snow Brothers 1990 24707x 75%
Soccer 1985 20713x 70%
Solomon’s Key 1986 21121x 81%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 8722x 80%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 22977x 62%
Space Invaders 1978 11975x 62%
Spelunker 1983 18677x 71%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 17791x 75%
Splatterhouse 1989 6232x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 14184x 78%
Spy vs Spy 1984 18600x 72%
Star Force 1984 28574x 80%
Star Luster 1985 5573x 63%
Star Soldier 1986 7431x 72%
Star Wars 1987 8680x 57%
Star Wars 1991 11743x 75%
StarTropics 1990 6183x 63%
Stinger 1987 7726x 85%
Strider 1989 8045x 81%
Super Arabian 1983 15252x 69%
Super C 1990 58882x 79%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2202703x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 267687x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 635311x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 190193x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 15944x 55%
Super Robin Hood 1986 16743x 74%
Super Sprint 1986 14292x 69%
Sweet Home 1989 10680x 65%
Sword Master 1992 5384x 55%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 27981x 71%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 31425x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 29896x 80%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 22703x 74%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 21618x 84%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 56361x 69%
Tennis 1983 50903x 76%
Terminator 2 1991 13574x 61%
Tetris 1989 25251x 84%
Tetris 1988 15600x 81%
Tetris 1986 35893x 68%
Tetris 2 1993 2940x 38%
The Black Onyx 1984 2356x 65%
The Flintstones 1991 22121x 70%
The Goonies 1986 21864x 72%
The Goonies II 1987 1597x 63%
The Jungle Book 1994 11670x 64%
The Karate Kid 1987 16300x 75%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 226359x 79%
The Terminator 1992 12338x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 12237x 83%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 31740x 78%
Toobin’ 1988 5136x 60%
Top Gun 1987 1187x 48%
Total Recall 1990 3360x 83%
Track & Field 1984 64275x 69%
TwinBee 1985 26971x 76%
Urban Champion 1984 21411x 74%
Vindicators 1988 9069x 65%
Volguard II 1985 5131x 68%
Volleyball 1986 15331x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 7726x 71%
Wacky Races 1992 6798x 56%
Wario’s Woods 1994 18589x 68%
Warpman 1985 9565x 66%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 3816x 74%
Wild Ball 1988 14421x 48%
Willow 1989 10081x 70%
Winter Games 1985 9260x 63%
Wizardry 1981 9046x 54%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 11733x 84%
Wrecking Crew 1985 28431x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 8575x 67%
Xevious 1982 22779x 80%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 44188x 70%
Yo! Noid 1990 12844x 69%
Zelda II 1987 40817x 69%
Zippy Race 1985 24693x 60%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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