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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 19647x 64%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 3880x 41%
1942 1984 49700x 71%
1943 1987 36235x 67%
20 in 1 1991 4126x 68%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 6036x 61%
31 in 1 1991 5609x 74%
42 in 1 1991 5325x 35%
64 in 1 1991 17888x 67%
8 Eyes 1988 24163x 61%
Addams Family, The 1991 14731x 71%
Adventure Island 1986 90914x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 36871x 74%
Adventure Island III 1992 26017x 73%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 39624x 69%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 17308x 70%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 18401x 77%
Alien 3 1992 9123x 71%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 3156x 75%
Altered Beast 1988 7067x 63%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 24120x 68%
Archon 1983 10598x 68%
Argus 1986 5371x 59%
Arkanoid 1986 66640x 73%
Arkanoid II 1987 13200x 69%
B-Wings 1984 21191x 65%
Back to the Future 1989 11513x 49%
Bad Dudes 1988 10129x 58%
Badminton 1988 4803x 80%
Ballblazer 1985 280x 30%
Balloon Fight 1984 48072x 75%
Baseball 1983 60976x 75%
Baseball Stars 1989 16653x 77%
Batman 1989 36595x 83%
Battle Chess 1988 18031x 61%
Battle City 1985 404907x 76%
Battleship 1993 16231x 79%
Battletoads 1991 29997x 76%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 11085x 76%
Binary Land 1985 19528x 68%
Bionic Commando 1987 11683x 71%
Blades of Steel 1988 38559x 86%
Blaster Master 1988 8917x 75%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 6753x 51%
Bomberman 1985 745548x 66%
Bomberman II 1991 136152x 72%
Boulder Dash 1984 30149x 68%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 23902x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 46379x 67%
Bugs Bunny 1989 16237x 66%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 35677x 68%
BurgerTime 1982 31069x 76%
California Games 1987 7968x 51%
Castelian 1987 8827x 62%
Castlequest 1985 3177x 73%
Castlevania 1986 38942x 82%
Castlevania II 1987 26495x 72%
Castlevania III 1989 18859x 82%
Chack’n Pop 1983 11088x 65%
Challenger 1985 7533x 65%
Championship Bowling 1989 11022x 68%
Championship Karate 1992 2905x 56%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 34862x 80%
Chase H.Q. 1988 22707x 65%
Chessmaster 1989 8708x 72%
Chiller 1986 7556x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 48529x 76%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 26506x 77%
Choplifter 1982 8251x 67%
Chubby Cherub 1985 1825x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 139643x 72%
City Connection 1985 15581x 74%
Cliffhanger 1993 5301x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 14662x 72%
Commando 1985 16562x 59%
Contra 1987 408419x 74%
Contra Force 1992 38715x 74%
Crazy Climber 1980 2993x 35%
Crystalis 1990 17461x 68%
Darkwing Duck 1992 6869x 87%
Defender II 1981 11582x 86%
Devil World 1984 9572x 62%
Die Hard 1991 8588x 81%
Dig Dug 1982 293186x 76%
Dig Dug II 1985 19657x 82%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 39704x 77%
Donkey Kong 1981 135493x 76%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 30799x 70%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 78040x 66%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 21507x 68%
Door Door 1985 9109x 81%
Double Dragon 1987 56907x 65%
Double Dragon II 1990 37834x 74%
Double Dragon III 1990 25610x 73%
Double Dribble 1987 33141x 76%
Dough Boy 1984 4167x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 731194x 72%
Dracula 1993 9790x 60%
Dragon Spirit 1987 7219x 88%
Dragon Warrior 1986 24701x 83%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 6658x 68%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 1388x 80%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 10919x 76%
Duck Tales 1989 38388x 62%
Elevator Action 1983 22653x 71%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 2261x 62%
Excitebike 1984 105232x 73%
Exerion 1983 10524x 65%
F-1 Race 1984 25882x 58%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 13509x 70%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 10614x 72%
Faxanadu 1987 8538x 75%
Felix the Cat 1992 72702x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 3195x 36%
Field Combat 1985 11004x 79%
Final Fantasy 1987 34546x 80%
Final Fantasy II 1988 14218x 76%
Final Fantasy III 1990 11548x 85%
Final Lap 1987 6256x 40%
Flappy 1983 9032x 74%
Formation Z 1984 8962x 76%
Friday the 13th 1989 23758x 55%
Front Line 1982 15949x 78%
Galaga 1981 233030x 76%
Galaxian 1979 91725x 71%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 2064x 65%
Gauntlet 1985 5158x 65%
Gauntlet II 1986 5618x 66%
Geimos 1985 5155x 40%
Ghostbusters 1984 9073x 65%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 24756x 70%
Goal! 1988 16266x 79%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 13084x 79%
Golf 1984 15876x 69%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 8386x 74%
Gradius 1985 26658x 78%
Gradius II 1988 5008x 73%
Guerrilla War 1987 10308x 87%
Gun.Smoke 1987 16605x 75%
Gyromite 1985 9848x 69%
Gyruss 1983 12333x 72%
Home Alone 1991 12172x 80%
Honey Peach 1990 11517x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 18938x 37%
Hudson Hawk 1991 7788x 70%
Ice Climber 1985 82448x 73%
Ice Hockey 1988 26199x 71%
Igo 1987 6590x 64%
Ikari Warriors 1986 13715x 69%
Ikki 1985 8759x 71%
Indiana Jones 1987 7796x 62%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 9293x 63%
Indy Heat 1991 12923x 75%
Ironman 1989 6622x 70%
Jackal 1986 21749x 78%
Jaws 1987 14904x 69%
Jeopardy! 1988 2734x 48%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 2163x 58%
Journey to Silius 1990 7712x 67%
Joust 1982 15518x 68%
Jurassic Park 1993 15204x 77%
Kabuki 1990 4614x 62%
Karate Champ 1984 20446x 65%
Karateka 1984 23675x 64%
Kid Icarus 1986 27950x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 11223x 78%
King’s Quest V 1990 10509x 79%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 41054x 80%
Knight Move 1990 3120x 60%
Knight Rider 1988 4794x 34%
Knightmare II 1987 1902x 73%
Krion Conquest 1990 8140x 88%
Kung Fu 2 1991 11633x 66%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 66199x 78%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 32141x 77%
Lemmings 1991 15021x 64%
Life Force 1986 12730x 75%
Lion King, The 1994 10680x 71%
Little Nemo 1990 11223x 86%
Lode Runner 1983 168982x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 26079x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 16630x 69%
Mach Rider 1985 14961x 58%
Macross 1985 10496x 69%
Magic Jewelry 1990 82343x 77%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 8940x 61%
Mahjong 1983 7314x 53%
Maniac Mansion 1987 11678x 66%
Mappy 1983 181619x 81%
Mappy Kids 1989 494x 78%
Mappy Land 1986 18609x 80%
Marble Madness 1984 7739x 68%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 16909x 71%
Mario Bros. 1983 111327x 74%
Mario is Missing! 1992 11764x 71%
Mega Man 1987 50851x 74%
Mega Man 2 1988 38899x 78%
Mega Man 3 1990 24119x 78%
Mega Man 4 1991 16957x 72%
Mega Man 5 1992 15562x 72%
Mega Man 6 1993 15837x 70%
Metal Gear 1987 16649x 74%
Metroid 1986 33218x 79%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 11312x 70%
Micro Machines 1991 16769x 78%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 9237x 75%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 19900x 81%
Millipede 1982 9779x 62%
Mission: Impossible 1990 9651x 76%
Monopoly 1987 32571x 83%
Monster Party 1989 2357x 73%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 11394x 83%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 33935x 72%
NARC 1988 6459x 55%
New Zealand Story 1989 9940x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 15424x 59%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 44797x 81%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 14323x 81%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 17214x 88%
Ninja-Kun 1984 10248x 75%
North & South 1989 13131x 73%
Nuts & Milk 1984 33574x 75%
Operation Wolf 1989 7775x 62%
Othello 1988 11661x 72%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 10920x 67%
Pac-Land 1985 34248x 67%
Pac-Man 1980 36502x 79%
Pac-Mania 1988 20535x 73%
Palamedes 1990 7449x 66%
Paperboy 1984 33084x 72%
Paperboy 2 1991 4623x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 13433x 73%
Penguin Wars 1985 9422x 79%
Pinball 1984 22271x 70%
Pipe Mania 1988 10860x 79%
Pirates! 1984 550x 45%
Pooyan 1982 27322x 78%
Popeye 1982 68508x 76%
Predator 1987 9342x 46%
Prince of Persia 1989 16924x 68%
Pro Wrestling 1986 13555x 58%
Punch-Out!! 1987 215515x 84%
Q*bert 1982 18257x 66%
Qix 1981 6424x 58%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 30460x 74%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 13492x 79%
Rad Racer 1987 22384x 72%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 6360x 64%
Rambo 1988 2679x 38%
Rampage 1986 13905x 72%
Renegade 1986 12150x 75%
River City Ransom 1989 12989x 82%
Road Fighter 1984 113792x 69%
Road Runner 1985 13030x 72%
Robin Hood 1991 10138x 83%
RoboCop 1988 16757x 71%
RoboCop 2 1991 7352x 77%
RoboCop 3 1992 3783x 75%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 3364x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 10008x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 7018x 75%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 2599x 78%
Rush’n Attack 1986 17950x 73%
Rygar 1986 12789x 61%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 268973x 71%
Sasa 1984 2650x 63%
Section-Z 1985 6890x 76%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 7433x 73%
Shadowgate 1987 10073x 81%
Shanghai 1986 7481x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 8296x 50%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 22333x 67%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 11008x 41%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 6636x 58%
Skate or Die 1988 13369x 76%
Ski or Die 1990 12411x 75%
Sky Destroyer 1985 18124x 79%
Sky Kid 1985 6302x 72%
Slalom 1987 6394x 60%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 3160x 82%
Snake's Revenge 1990 812x 68%
Snow Brothers 1990 23059x 76%
Soccer 1985 19310x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 19946x 81%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 8355x 80%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 21849x 62%
Space Invaders 1978 11330x 66%
Spelunker 1983 17952x 69%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 16596x 78%
Splatterhouse 1989 5920x 80%
Spy Hunter 1983 13487x 80%
Spy vs Spy 1984 17391x 73%
Star Force 1984 27280x 80%
Star Luster 1985 5266x 57%
Star Soldier 1986 7033x 71%
Star Wars 1987 8257x 57%
Star Wars 1991 11162x 73%
StarTropics 1990 5851x 63%
Stinger 1987 7448x 85%
Strider 1989 7746x 81%
Super Arabian 1983 14659x 69%
Super C 1990 55604x 79%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2128381x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 255901x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 614416x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 183171x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 15377x 56%
Super Robin Hood 1986 16185x 74%
Super Sprint 1986 13647x 69%
Sweet Home 1989 10165x 65%
Sword Master 1992 5005x 55%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 26517x 72%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 29783x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 28347x 80%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 20672x 73%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 20496x 83%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 53726x 69%
Tennis 1983 48214x 76%
Terminator 2 1991 13026x 62%
Tetris 1989 20448x 85%
Tetris 1988 13503x 79%
Tetris 1986 34881x 68%
Tetris 2 1993 2458x 80%
The Black Onyx 1984 2049x 65%
The Flintstones 1991 21155x 71%
The Goonies 1986 20662x 71%
The Goonies II 1987 1189x 63%
The Jungle Book 1994 10939x 62%
The Karate Kid 1987 15801x 75%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 213894x 79%
The Terminator 1992 11944x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 11757x 83%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 29920x 78%
Toobin’ 1988 4775x 85%
Top Gun 1987 650x 57%
Total Recall 1990 3071x 80%
Track & Field 1984 60780x 69%
TwinBee 1985 25344x 77%
Urban Champion 1984 20468x 75%
Vindicators 1988 8683x 65%
Volguard II 1985 4904x 68%
Volleyball 1986 14572x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 7115x 74%
Wacky Races 1992 6230x 60%
Wario’s Woods 1994 17839x 68%
Warpman 1985 9253x 66%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 3330x 80%
Wild Ball 1988 13131x 50%
Willow 1989 9666x 70%
Winter Games 1985 8960x 63%
Wizardry 1981 8691x 54%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 11037x 83%
Wrecking Crew 1985 27249x 71%
Xenophobe 1988 8326x 67%
Xevious 1982 21513x 79%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 42063x 70%
Yo! Noid 1990 12182x 66%
Zelda II 1987 38990x 69%
Zippy Race 1985 23875x 60%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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