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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 25533x 63%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 5912x 53%
115 in 1 1992 5742x 53%
1942 1984 64597x 69%
1943 1987 46415x 67%
20 in 1 1991 6818x 61%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 9310x 58%
31 in 1 1991 9948x 66%
42 in 1 1991 9890x 40%
64 in 1 1991 34517x 63%
8 Eyes 1988 28794x 57%
Addams Family, The 1991 18781x 63%
Adventure Island 1986 120744x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 44453x 73%
Adventure Island III 1992 34329x 73%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 49307x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 21108x 67%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 22175x 72%
Airwolf 1988 1440x 63%
Alien 3 1992 11305x 72%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 14119x 71%
Altered Beast 1988 8990x 60%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 29397x 68%
Archon 1983 14292x 63%
Argus 1986 8325x 61%
Arkanoid 1986 79051x 72%
Arkanoid II 1987 16297x 69%
Athena 1986 319x 65%
B-Wings 1984 26505x 63%
Back to the Future 1989 14907x 50%
Bad Dudes 1988 14395x 53%
Badminton 1988 6350x 61%
Ballblazer 1985 1269x 53%
Balloon Fight 1984 60726x 74%
Baseball 1983 76427x 72%
Baseball Stars 1989 24258x 77%
Batman 1989 44619x 81%
Batman Returns 1992 730x 55%
Battle Chess 1988 22131x 62%
Battle City 1985 512484x 75%
Battleship 1993 19329x 75%
Battletoads 1991 41066x 76%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 16376x 72%
Binary Land 1985 22881x 71%
Bionic Commando 1987 14325x 73%
Blades of Steel 1988 46388x 82%
Blaster Master 1988 12429x 74%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 8772x 55%
Bomberman 1985 937699x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 149642x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 37361x 66%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 30774x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 68102x 67%
Bugs Bunny 1989 24047x 67%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 42328x 67%
BurgerTime 1982 44250x 74%
Caesars Palace 1992 1090x 46%
California Games 1987 9922x 55%
Captain Skyhawk 1989 1784x 73%
Castelian 1987 10476x 64%
Castlequest 1985 7144x 79%
Castlevania 1986 61630x 81%
Castlevania II 1987 32705x 73%
Castlevania III 1989 26692x 79%
Chack’n Pop 1983 13159x 57%
Challenger 1985 9237x 72%
Championship Bowling 1989 13251x 71%
Championship Karate 1992 4022x 58%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 39752x 79%
Chase H.Q. 1988 27131x 64%
Chessmaster 1989 10744x 72%
Chiller 1986 9888x 50%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 60549x 76%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 32959x 76%
Choplifter 1982 10001x 69%
Chubby Cherub 1985 3127x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 171381x 70%
City Connection 1985 19607x 68%
Cliffhanger 1993 6894x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 17512x 70%
Commando 1985 20678x 63%
Contra 1987 558430x 73%
Contra Force 1992 47573x 74%
Crazy Climber 1980 4785x 40%
Crystalis 1990 21505x 65%
Darkwing Duck 1992 11612x 82%
Defender II 1981 14019x 82%
Devil World 1984 11822x 62%
Die Hard 1991 10911x 81%
Dig Dug 1982 366129x 75%
Dig Dug II 1985 25131x 81%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 47420x 74%
Donkey Kong 1981 165931x 74%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 37044x 72%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 92819x 68%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 24937x 67%
Door Door 1985 11419x 75%
Double Dragon 1987 72180x 63%
Double Dragon II 1990 50205x 75%
Double Dragon III 1990 32014x 75%
Double Dribble 1987 39837x 73%
Dough Boy 1984 5363x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 891272x 71%
Dracula 1993 11692x 68%
Dragon Spirit 1987 10435x 77%
Dragon Warrior 1986 32374x 81%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 9272x 71%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 3775x 85%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 13846x 64%
Duck Hunt 1984 5718x 79%
Duck Tales 1989 48923x 63%
Egypt 1991 795x 51%
Elevator Action 1983 29432x 71%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 4022x 64%
Elite 1984 3256x 67%
Excitebike 1984 126442x 73%
Exerion 1983 12500x 63%
F-1 Race 1984 30684x 54%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 16054x 69%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 13434x 70%
Faxanadu 1987 10942x 65%
Felix the Cat 1992 83778x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 5154x 41%
Field Combat 1985 13164x 80%
Final Fantasy 1987 45944x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 17833x 78%
Final Fantasy III 1990 15591x 84%
Final Lap 1987 8362x 52%
Flappy 1983 11729x 80%
Formation Z 1984 10664x 73%
Friday the 13th 1989 31109x 59%
Front Line 1982 19159x 76%
Galaga 1981 282209x 75%
Galaxian 1979 114501x 70%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 3544x 62%
Gauntlet 1985 8041x 66%
Gauntlet II 1986 7364x 70%
Geimos 1985 6395x 39%
Ghostbusters 1984 12222x 59%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 35436x 68%
Goal! 1988 19938x 81%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 15776x 76%
Golf 1984 19943x 73%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 9906x 68%
Gradius 1985 35470x 78%
Gradius II 1988 6987x 72%
Guerrilla War 1987 13310x 83%
Gun.Smoke 1987 22205x 74%
Gyromite 1985 12232x 58%
Gyruss 1983 15176x 72%
Hello Kitty World 1992 1363x 65%
Hogan's Alley 1984 1403x 64%
Home Alone 1991 14978x 74%
Honey Peach 1990 13740x 45%
Hot Slots 1991 21758x 41%
Hudson Hawk 1991 9297x 68%
Ice Climber 1985 103865x 72%
Ice Hockey 1988 31708x 69%
Igo 1987 7754x 59%
Ikari Warriors 1986 17766x 60%
Ikki 1985 10034x 63%
Indiana Jones 1987 9374x 63%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 11460x 60%
Indy Heat 1991 15478x 69%
Ironman 1989 8666x 60%
Jackal 1986 28824x 77%
Jaws 1987 18471x 66%
Jeopardy! 1988 5016x 54%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 3775x 56%
Journey to Silius 1990 9426x 68%
Joust 1982 19757x 70%
Jurassic Park 1993 18357x 78%
Kabuki 1990 6709x 59%
Karate Champ 1984 25013x 61%
Karateka 1984 29889x 62%
Kickle Cubicle 1988 1248x 61%
Kid Icarus 1986 34051x 80%
Kings of the Beach 1988 13543x 81%
King’s Quest V 1990 12536x 79%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 54134x 80%
Knight Move 1990 4292x 55%
Knight Rider 1988 7311x 47%
Knightmare II 1987 3574x 79%
Krion Conquest 1990 10053x 73%
Kung Fu 2 1991 14340x 69%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 79246x 77%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 40434x 76%
Lemmings 1991 17933x 57%
Life Force 1986 16502x 77%
Lion King, The 1994 13428x 71%
Little Nemo 1990 14700x 78%
Lode Runner 1983 193923x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 30582x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 20294x 68%
Mach Rider 1985 18496x 60%
Macross 1985 12799x 72%
Magic Jewelry 1990 101169x 76%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 10305x 59%
Mahjong 1983 9081x 52%
Maniac Mansion 1987 14504x 80%
Mappy 1983 221193x 80%
Mappy Kids 1989 2173x 79%
Mappy Land 1986 21192x 80%
Marble Madness 1984 10800x 64%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 20216x 72%
Mario Bros. 1983 140687x 72%
Mario is Missing! 1992 14859x 68%
Maxi-15 Pack 1992 1149x 59%
Mega Man 1987 74763x 72%
Mega Man 2 1988 57382x 79%
Mega Man 3 1990 33383x 79%
Mega Man 4 1991 23175x 78%
Mega Man 5 1992 21938x 77%
Mega Man 6 1993 21751x 81%
Metal Gear 1987 22347x 71%
Metroid 1986 44023x 78%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 14551x 67%
Micro Machines 1991 21748x 79%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 11171x 74%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 24960x 81%
Millipede 1982 11965x 63%
Mission: Impossible 1990 11608x 68%
Monopoly 1987 38959x 80%
Monster Party 1989 4182x 78%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 14387x 83%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 40333x 73%
NARC 1988 8728x 52%
New Zealand Story 1989 12406x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 19219x 64%
Nightshade 1992 1016x 47%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 58443x 79%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 17516x 82%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 21636x 83%
Ninja-Kun 1984 12299x 73%
North & South 1989 15938x 74%
Nuts & Milk 1984 38477x 74%
Operation Wolf 1989 9273x 60%
Othello 1988 13852x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 13818x 64%
Pac-Land 1985 41294x 64%
Pac-Man 1980 47077x 74%
Pac-Mania 1988 24695x 73%
Palamedes 1990 8942x 62%
Paperboy 1984 43835x 70%
Paperboy 2 1991 6404x 61%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 15773x 73%
Penguin Wars 1985 11181x 78%
Pinball 1984 27119x 71%
Pipe Mania 1988 12579x 79%
Pirates! 1984 2698x 83%
Pooyan 1982 32100x 76%
Popeye 1982 80149x 73%
Predator 1987 10994x 50%
Prince of Persia 1989 21045x 69%
Pro Wrestling 1986 18026x 55%
Punch-Out!! 1987 313404x 83%
Q*bert 1982 25208x 60%
Qix 1981 8384x 60%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 38346x 76%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 17114x 69%
Rad Racer 1987 27502x 70%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 8116x 59%
Rainbow Islands 1987 1004x 58%
Rambo 1988 4732x 43%
Rampage 1986 18503x 68%
Renegade 1986 14530x 76%
River City Ransom 1989 16907x 80%
Road Fighter 1984 136036x 68%
Road Runner 1985 16749x 70%
Robin Hood 1991 11979x 74%
RoboCop 1988 20607x 70%
RoboCop 2 1991 9939x 70%
RoboCop 3 1992 5651x 72%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 4420x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 11371x 63%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 8648x 79%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 4122x 78%
Rush’n Attack 1986 22843x 73%
Rygar 1986 16298x 60%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 311346x 71%
Sasa 1984 4203x 70%
Section-Z 1985 8335x 70%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 11112x 69%
Shadowgate 1987 12543x 79%
Shanghai 1986 8663x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 11802x 60%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 27204x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 13593x 48%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 8329x 63%
Skate or Die 1988 16771x 77%
Ski or Die 1990 14509x 72%
Sky Destroyer 1985 21557x 79%
Sky Kid 1985 8295x 73%
Slalom 1987 8362x 61%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 5643x 71%
Snake's Revenge 1990 2163x 65%
Snow Brothers 1990 32063x 70%
Soccer 1985 25037x 72%
Solitaire 1992 1145x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 25523x 80%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 10220x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 26830x 64%
Space Invaders 1978 14771x 73%
Spelunker 1983 21429x 65%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 21667x 73%
Splatterhouse 1989 7717x 67%
Spy Hunter 1983 17330x 77%
Spy vs Spy 1984 23037x 73%
Star Force 1984 32570x 80%
Star Luster 1985 6901x 66%
Star Soldier 1986 8954x 73%
Star Wars 1987 10693x 58%
Star Wars 1991 14236x 76%
StarTropics 1990 7947x 66%
Stinger 1987 8971x 65%
Strider 1989 9105x 80%
Super Arabian 1983 17441x 70%
Super C 1990 72671x 76%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2476350x 73%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 323137x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 747240x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 222536x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 18303x 56%
Super Robin Hood 1986 18997x 73%
Super Sprint 1986 16780x 69%
Superman 1987 2645x 73%
Sweet Home 1989 12994x 65%
Sword Master 1992 6702x 65%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 33531x 72%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 37387x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 35929x 78%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 36141x 77%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 28477x 81%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 65605x 69%
Tennis 1983 60171x 76%
Terminator 2 1991 15961x 67%
Tetris 1989 148696x 82%
Tetris 1988 26916x 78%
Tetris 1986 40616x 66%
Tetris 2 1993 5284x 62%
The Black Onyx 1984 3627x 59%
The Flintstones 1991 25678x 73%
The Goonies 1986 26150x 69%
The Goonies II 1987 3151x 69%
The Jungle Book 1994 14382x 65%
The Karate Kid 1987 19164x 72%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 279410x 79%
The Terminator 1992 14075x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 14490x 81%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 40971x 72%
Toobin’ 1988 6463x 60%
Top Gun 1987 3827x 51%
Total Recall 1990 4889x 66%
Track & Field 1984 77483x 68%
TwinBee 1985 32602x 76%
Urban Champion 1984 24649x 70%
Vindicators 1988 10329x 61%
Volguard II 1985 6072x 73%
Volleyball 1986 17562x 69%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 9710x 74%
Wacky Races 1992 9053x 61%
Wario’s Woods 1994 21370x 67%
Warpman 1985 10838x 63%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 6076x 70%
Wild Ball 1988 19778x 53%
Wild Gunman 1984 1634x 59%
Willow 1989 11999x 71%
Winter Games 1985 10701x 62%
Wizardry 1981 10858x 61%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 14348x 84%
Wrecking Crew 1985 32676x 69%
Xenophobe 1988 9717x 62%
Xevious 1982 27793x 80%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 52212x 70%
Yo! Noid 1990 15761x 68%
Zelda II 1987 48749x 70%
Zippy Race 1985 27937x 63%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Manual: Nintendo_NES.pdf
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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