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Video game console - Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)

   The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform. It was initially released in Japan as the Family Computer (also known by the portmanteau abbreviation Famicom) on July 15, 1983, and was later released in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986, and Australia in 1987.
    Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, which is short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he felt that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools. Because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
    The console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer (or Famicom for short) for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum; a bad chip set caused the initial release of the system to crash. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom’s popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984.
    Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari’s name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System. The deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game. This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, and Nintendo decided to market its system on its own.
    Subsequent plans to market a Famicom console in North America featuring a keyboard, cassette data recorder, wireless joystick controller and a special BASIC cartridge under the name 'Nintendo Advanced Video System' likewise never materialized. By the beginning of 1985, the Famicom had sold more than 2.5 million units in Japan and Nintendo soon announced plans to release it in North America as the Advanced Video Entertainment System (AVS) that same year. The American video game press was skeptical that the console could have any success in the region, with the March 1985 issue of Electronic Games magazine stating that 'the videogame market in America has virtually disappeared' and that 'this could be a miscalculation on Nintendo's part.'
    At June 1985's Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Nintendo unveiled the American version of its Famicom, with a new case redesigned by Lance Barr and featuring a 'zero insertion force' cartridge slot. This is the system which would eventually be officially deployed as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or the colloquial 'NES'. Nintendo seeded these first systems to limited American test markets starting in New York City on October 18, 1985, and following up with a full-fledged North American release in February of the following year. The nationwide release was in September 1986. Nintendo released 17 launch titles: 10-Yard Fight, Baseball, Clu Clu Land, Duck Hunt, Excitebike, Golf, Gyromite, Hogan’s Alley, Ice Climber, Kung Fu, Pinball, Soccer, Stack-Up, Tennis, Wild Gunman, Wrecking Crew, and Super Mario Bros. Some varieties of these launch games contained Famicom chips with an adapter inside the cartridge so they would play on North American consoles, which is why the title screen of Gyromite has the Famicom title 'Robot Gyro' and the title screen of Stack-Up has the Famicom title 'Robot Block'.
    By 1988, industry observers stated that the NES's popularity had grown so quickly that the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than that for all home computer software. Compute! reported in 1989 that Nintendo had sold seven million NES systems in 1988, almost as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. 'Computer game makers [are] scared stiff', the magazine said, stating that Nintendo's popularity caused most competitors to have poor sales during the previous Christmas and resulted in serious financial problems for some.
    The NES was released after the 'video game crash' of the early 1980s, when many retailers and adults regarded electronic games as a passing fad, so many believed at first that the NES would soon fade. Before the NES/Famicom, Nintendo was known as a moderately successful Japanese toy and playing card manufacturer, but the popularity of the NES/Famicom helped the company grow into an internationally recognized name almost synonymous with video games and set the stage for Japanese dominance of the video game industry. With the NES, Nintendo also changed the relationship between console manufacturers and third-party software developers by restricting developers from publishing and distributing software without licensed approval. This led to higher quality software titles, which helped change the attitude of a public that had grown weary from poorly produced titles for earlier game systems.
    On August 14, 1995, Nintendo discontinued the Nintendo Entertainment System in both North America and Europe.The Famicom was originally discontinued in September 2003. Nintendo offered repair service for the Famicom in Japan until 2007.

Alphabetical list of the games for NES hosted at RetroGames.cz:

Name Released Number of hits User rating
10-Yard Fight 1985 26840x 62%
11 in 1 Ball Series 1993 6481x 53%
115 in 1 1992 8572x 56%
1942 1984 68401x 70%
1943 1987 48887x 66%
20 in 1 1991 7565x 62%
22 + 1 in 1 1991 10146x 61%
31 in 1 1991 10911x 66%
42 in 1 1991 11332x 43%
64 in 1 1991 39689x 64%
8 Eyes 1988 30138x 57%
Addams Family, The 1991 19678x 64%
Adventure Island 1986 128565x 70%
Adventure Island II 1991 46622x 73%
Adventure Island III 1992 36729x 73%
Adventures of Bayou Billy 1988 498x 54%
Adventures of Lolo 1987 51497x 68%
Adventures of Lolo 2 1990 22105x 67%
Adventures of Lolo 3 1991 23100x 73%
Airwolf 1988 2782x 67%
Alien 3 1992 11838x 74%
All Night Nippon SMB 1986 17089x 71%
Altered Beast 1988 9507x 59%
Antarctic Adventure 1983 30752x 68%
Archon 1983 15123x 62%
Argus 1986 8847x 61%
Arkanoid 1986 81883x 71%
Arkanoid II 1987 17055x 67%
Athena 1986 1170x 73%
B-Wings 1984 27688x 62%
Back to the Future 1989 15865x 50%
Bad Dudes 1988 15637x 53%
Badminton 1988 6689x 61%
Ballblazer 1985 1490x 53%
Balloon Fight 1984 63447x 74%
Baseball 1983 80823x 72%
Baseball Stars 1989 26882x 75%
Batman 1989 46853x 80%
Batman Returns 1992 1046x 55%
Battle Chess 1988 23357x 62%
Battle City 1985 538423x 75%
Battleship 1993 20260x 74%
Battletoads 1991 44705x 74%
Battletoads & Double Dragon 1993 17631x 72%
Binary Land 1985 23799x 70%
Bionic Commando 1987 15137x 73%
Blades of Steel 1988 48561x 82%
Blaster Master 1988 13348x 69%
Bokosuka Wars 1983 9273x 53%
Bomberman 1985 980663x 65%
Bomberman II 1991 152236x 73%
Boulder Dash 1984 40573x 64%
Bubble Bath Babes 1991 32950x 54%
Bubble Bobble 1986 76524x 68%
Bugs Bunny 1989 26152x 68%
Bump ’N’ Jump 1982 43910x 66%
BurgerTime 1982 47292x 75%
Caesars Palace 1992 1629x 46%
California Games 1987 10447x 55%
Captain Skyhawk 1989 2192x 73%
Castelian 1987 10864x 64%
Castlequest 1985 7753x 79%
Castlevania 1986 68352x 79%
Castlevania II 1987 34341x 73%
Castlevania III 1989 28598x 79%
Chack’n Pop 1983 13643x 57%
Challenger 1985 9649x 72%
Championship Bowling 1989 13877x 71%
Championship Karate 1992 4299x 58%
Championship Lode Runner 1984 40890x 79%
Chase H.Q. 1988 28056x 63%
Chessmaster 1989 11367x 72%
Chiller 1986 10417x 52%
Chip ’N Dale 1990 63552x 75%
Chip ’N Dale 2 1993 34477x 76%
Choplifter 1982 10492x 66%
Chubby Cherub 1985 3449x 74%
Circus Charlie 1984 179587x 70%
City Connection 1985 20565x 68%
Cliffhanger 1993 7307x 67%
Clu Clu Land 1984 18314x 70%
Commando 1985 21552x 62%
Contra 1987 599426x 74%
Contra Force 1992 50024x 75%
Crazy Climber 1980 5349x 36%
Crystalis 1990 22725x 65%
Darkwing Duck 1992 13133x 84%
Defender II 1981 14767x 82%
Devil World 1984 12444x 59%
Die Hard 1991 11428x 78%
Dig Dug 1982 382663x 75%
Dig Dug II 1985 26602x 81%
Disney’s Aladdin 1993 50192x 73%
Donkey Kong 1981 174615x 74%
Donkey Kong 3 1983 38871x 71%
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 96730x 68%
Donkey Kong Jr. Math 1985 25843x 67%
Door Door 1985 11970x 75%
Double Dragon 1987 76674x 62%
Double Dragon II 1990 53784x 74%
Double Dragon III 1990 33859x 75%
Double Dribble 1987 41773x 72%
Dough Boy 1984 5684x 54%
Dr. Mario 1990 928552x 71%
Dracula 1993 12213x 68%
Dragon Spirit 1987 10987x 77%
Dragon Warrior 1986 34710x 81%
Dragon Warrior II 1987 9966x 71%
Dragon Warrior III 1988 4956x 75%
Dragon’s Lair 1989 14694x 64%
Duck Hunt 1984 9968x 85%
Duck Tales 1989 51660x 63%
Egypt 1991 1102x 51%
Elevator Action 1983 31429x 72%
Eliminator Boat Duel 1991 4480x 64%
Elite 1984 3741x 67%
Excitebike 1984 131432x 74%
Exerion 1983 12994x 63%
F-1 Race 1984 32022x 53%
F-15 Strike Eagle 1985 16588x 70%
Fantastic Dizzy 1993 14078x 68%
Fantasy Zone 1986 39x 60%
Faxanadu 1987 11581x 65%
Felix the Cat 1992 86412x 72%
Fester’s Quest 1989 5701x 48%
Field Combat 1985 13830x 81%
Final Fantasy 1987 49735x 79%
Final Fantasy II 1988 19156x 79%
Final Fantasy III 1990 17220x 84%
Final Lap 1987 8893x 59%
Flappy 1983 12464x 80%
Formation Z 1984 11166x 73%
Friday the 13th 1989 32867x 61%
Front Line 1982 20007x 76%
Galaga 1981 295406x 75%
Galaxian 1979 118447x 70%
Gargoyle's Quest II 1992 3941x 62%
Gauntlet 1985 8924x 70%
Gauntlet II 1986 8005x 71%
Geimos 1985 6740x 39%
Ghostbusters 1984 13010x 59%
Ghosts ’N Goblins 1985 38321x 68%
Goal! 1988 20927x 80%
Gold Medal Challenge 1992 16480x 76%
Golf 1984 21295x 72%
Gomoku Narabe Renju 1983 10290x 68%
Gradius 1985 37514x 75%
Gradius II 1988 7553x 71%
Guerrilla War 1987 14116x 83%
Gun.Smoke 1987 23571x 73%
Gyromite 1985 12811x 58%
Gyruss 1983 16005x 73%
Hello Kitty World 1992 1704x 67%
Hogan's Alley 1984 1963x 64%
Home Alone 1991 15618x 73%
Honey Peach 1990 14446x 44%
Hot Slots 1991 22473x 42%
Hudson Hawk 1991 9683x 68%
Ice Climber 1985 108395x 72%
Ice Hockey 1988 33101x 69%
Igo 1987 8068x 59%
Ikari Warriors 1986 18877x 60%
Ikki 1985 10373x 63%
Indiana Jones 1987 9797x 63%
Indiana Jones and ... 1989 12010x 60%
Indy Heat 1991 16178x 70%
Ironman 1989 9216x 58%
Jackal 1986 30886x 78%
Jaws 1987 19510x 65%
Jeopardy! 1988 5688x 59%
Jeopardy! Junior Edition 1989 4241x 56%
Journey to Silius 1990 9917x 68%
Joust 1982 20964x 72%
Jurassic Park 1993 19200x 79%
Kabuki 1990 7076x 59%
Karate Champ 1984 26224x 61%
Karateka 1984 31396x 63%
Kickle Cubicle 1988 1712x 61%
Kid Icarus 1986 35475x 79%
Kings of the Beach 1988 14239x 80%
King’s Quest V 1990 13038x 79%
Kirby’s Adventure 1993 58773x 80%
Knight Move 1990 4607x 55%
Knight Rider 1988 7962x 46%
Knightmare II 1987 4061x 79%
Krion Conquest 1990 10430x 73%
Kung Fu 2 1991 15045x 69%
Kung-Fu Master 1984 83097x 77%
Legend of Kage, The 1986 42642x 77%
Lemmings 1991 18704x 57%
Life Force 1986 17553x 78%
Lion King, The 1994 14247x 74%
Little Nemo 1990 15642x 78%
Lode Runner 1983 198857x 75%
Lunar Ball 1985 31829x 69%
M.U.S.C.L.E. 1985 21516x 69%
Mach Rider 1985 19321x 60%
Macross 1985 13346x 72%
Magic Jewelry 1990 105268x 76%
Magic of Scheherazade 1987 10695x 60%
Mahjong 1983 9598x 52%
Maniac Mansion 1987 15365x 79%
Mappy 1983 230200x 81%
Mappy Kids 1989 2570x 79%
Mappy Land 1986 21842x 80%
Marble Madness 1984 11945x 68%
Mario & Yoshi 1991 21178x 72%
Mario Bros. 1983 148632x 71%
Mario is Missing! 1992 15562x 68%
Maxi-15 Pack 1992 1577x 59%
Mega Man 1987 84723x 72%
Mega Man 2 1988 66182x 80%
Mega Man 3 1990 37235x 82%
Mega Man 4 1991 26104x 77%
Mega Man 5 1992 24871x 77%
Mega Man 6 1993 24485x 83%
Metal Gear 1987 24291x 70%
Metroid 1986 47418x 77%
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 15545x 67%
Micro Machines 1991 23018x 76%
Might and Magic: Book I 1986 11749x 74%
Mighty Final Fight 1993 26451x 80%
Millipede 1982 12530x 63%
Mission: Impossible 1990 12090x 68%
Monopoly 1987 40755x 80%
Monster Party 1989 4731x 78%
Monster in My Pocket 1992 15345x 84%
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 41881x 73%
NARC 1988 9372x 54%
New Zealand Story 1989 12972x 59%
Nightmare on Elm Street 1989 20179x 64%
Nightshade 1992 1380x 47%
Ninja Gaiden 1988 61969x 79%
Ninja Gaiden II 1990 18572x 81%
Ninja Gaiden III 1991 22732x 81%
Ninja-Kun 1984 12780x 73%
North & South 1989 16936x 71%
Nuts & Milk 1984 39707x 74%
Operation Wolf 1989 9684x 61%
Othello 1988 14430x 71%
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War 1988 14630x 64%
Pac-Land 1985 43039x 65%
Pac-Man 1980 49662x 74%
Pac-Mania 1988 25450x 74%
Palamedes 1990 9334x 62%
Paperboy 1984 46376x 70%
Paperboy 2 1991 6841x 64%
Peek-A-Boo Poker 1990 16361x 74%
Penguin Wars 1985 11698x 78%
Pinball 1984 28299x 72%
Pipe Mania 1988 13023x 79%
Pirates! 1984 3365x 83%
Pooyan 1982 33286x 76%
Popeye 1982 82995x 72%
Predator 1987 11439x 50%
Prince of Persia 1989 21907x 68%
Pro Wrestling 1986 19260x 56%
Punch-Out!! 1987 344069x 83%
Q*bert 1982 27236x 61%
Qix 1981 8946x 60%
R.B.I. Baseball 1988 40713x 75%
R.C. Pro-Am 1988 18221x 70%
Rad Racer 1987 28918x 69%
Raid on Bungeling Bay 1984 8579x 59%
Rainbow Islands 1987 1643x 55%
Rambo 1988 5314x 46%
Rampage 1986 20016x 70%
Renegade 1986 15224x 76%
River City Ransom 1989 18046x 78%
Road Fighter 1984 141794x 68%
Road Runner 1985 17694x 69%
Robin Hood 1991 12477x 74%
RoboCop 1988 21629x 72%
RoboCop 2 1991 10594x 70%
RoboCop 3 1992 6105x 67%
RoboCop vs Terminator 1993 4713x 50%
RoboWarrior 1987 11718x 60%
Rockin’ Kats 1991 9093x 79%
Route-16 Turbo 1985 4484x 78%
Rush’n Attack 1986 24126x 73%
Rygar 1986 17293x 61%
SMB: Lost Levels 1986 323470x 71%
Sasa 1984 4604x 70%
Section-Z 1985 8817x 68%
Shadow of the Ninja 1990 12174x 70%
Shadowgate 1987 13201x 79%
Shanghai 1986 8981x 58%
Side Pocket 1987 12651x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. ... 1991 28441x 66%
Simpsons: Bart vs. World 1991 14369x 49%
Simpsons: Bartman ... 1992 8835x 63%
Skate or Die 1988 17586x 75%
Ski or Die 1990 15026x 72%
Sky Destroyer 1985 22432x 79%
Sky Kid 1985 8786x 73%
Slalom 1987 8812x 61%
Snake Rattle N Roll 1990 6340x 70%
Snake's Revenge 1990 2623x 57%
Snow Brothers 1990 35428x 67%
Soccer 1985 26381x 73%
Solitaire 1992 1473x 75%
Solomon’s Key 1986 26934x 80%
Solomon’s Key 2 1992 10697x 78%
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 28393x 64%
Space Invaders 1978 15953x 69%
Spelunker 1983 22305x 65%
Spider-Man: Return of ... 1992 23187x 72%
Splatterhouse 1989 8158x 67%
Spy Hunter 1983 18662x 76%
Spy vs Spy 1984 24468x 73%
Star Force 1984 34064x 80%
Star Luster 1985 7372x 69%
Star Soldier 1986 9505x 74%
Star Wars 1987 11344x 58%
Star Wars 1991 15066x 76%
StarTropics 1990 8516x 64%
Stinger 1987 9332x 64%
Strider 1989 9452x 80%
Super Arabian 1983 18144x 70%
Super C 1990 77848x 75%
Super Mario Bros. 1985 2610869x 72%
Super Mario Bros. 2 1988 344705x 66%
Super Mario Bros. 3 1988 799094x 70%
Super Mario Bros. Sp. 1986 234572x 68%
Super Pitfall 1987 18954x 57%
Super Robin Hood 1986 19736x 73%
Super Sprint 1986 17543x 70%
Superman 1987 3225x 71%
Sweet Home 1989 13743x 67%
Sword Master 1992 7188x 65%
TMNT II: The Arcade Game 1990 35881x 73%
TMNT III: The Manhattan ... 1991 39558x 72%
TMNT: Tournament ... 1993 38817x 78%
Tecmo Bowl 1987 38653x 77%
Tecmo Super Bowl 1991 30222x 81%
Teenage Mutant Ninja ... 1989 69040x 69%
Tennis 1983 63288x 76%
Terminator 2 1991 16834x 67%
Tetris 1989 200119x 82%
Tetris 1988 30447x 77%
Tetris 1986 42013x 66%
Tetris 2 1993 6266x 67%
The Black Onyx 1984 4085x 57%
The Flintstones 1991 26721x 73%
The Goonies 1986 27544x 67%
The Goonies II 1987 3652x 69%
The Jungle Book 1994 15296x 64%
The Karate Kid 1987 20002x 73%
The Legend of Zelda 1986 300309x 79%
The Terminator 1992 14703x 74%
The Tower of Druaga 1984 15220x 81%
Thexder 1985 1151x 70%
Tiny Toon Adventures 1991 44842x 72%
Toobin’ 1988 6877x 60%
Top Gun 1987 5046x 53%
Total Recall 1990 5315x 66%
Track & Field 1984 81628x 69%
TwinBee 1985 34385x 76%
Urban Champion 1984 25644x 71%
Vindicators 1988 10742x 60%
Volguard II 1985 6425x 71%
Volleyball 1986 18442x 71%
Vs. Excitebike 1988 10513x 75%
Wacky Races 1992 9849x 59%
Wario’s Woods 1994 22325x 68%
Warpman 1985 11223x 63%
Wheel of Fortune 1988 6752x 70%
Wild Ball 1988 21885x 53%
Wild Gunman 1984 2529x 53%
Willow 1989 12621x 72%
Winter Games 1985 11154x 62%
Wizardry 1981 11489x 62%
Wizards & Warriors 1987 15397x 85%
Wrecking Crew 1985 34117x 70%
Xenophobe 1988 10126x 64%
Xevious 1982 29380x 80%
Yie Ar Kung-Fu 1985 55564x 70%
Yo! Noid 1990 16855x 67%
Zelda II 1987 52006x 71%
Zippy Race 1985 28987x 64%

Text of this article is almost verbatim copy from www.wikipedia.org.


Nintendo Entertainment System (left) and
Nintendo Family Computer (right)
 

Technical data:
Manufacturer: Nintendo
Generation: Third (8-bit era)
Retail availability: July 1983 (Japan)
October 1985 (USA)
September 1986 (Europe)
January 1987 (Australia)
Discontinued: August 1995 (USA)
September 2003 (Japan)
Units sold: 62 million (As of 2010)
Media: ROM cartridge
Processor (CPU): Ricoh 2A03 8-bit
(MOS Technology 6502 core)
Screen resolution: 256 x 240
Colors: 48 (max 25 simultaneously)
Controller input: gamepad (cross + 2 buttons)
zapper (light gun)
power glove, ...
Manual: Nintendo_NES.pdf
Best-selling game: Super Mario Bros. (40 million)
Predecessor: Color TV Game (1977)
Successor: Super Nintendo Entertainment System (1990)


The most common NES game controller. It utilized the cross-shaped joypad, two round buttons
labeled 'A' and 'B', a 'START' button
and a 'SELECT' button.


The NES Zapper, a light gun accessory.


ROM cartridge for the NES console
with the game The Legend of Zelda.

 

Most popular NES games:

NES: Super Mario Bros. Super Mario Bros.

NES: Super Mario Bros. 2 Super Mario Bros. 2

NES: Super Mario Bros. 3 Super Mario Bros. 3

NES: Bomberman Bomberman

NES: Battle City Battle City

NES: Contra Contra

NES: Dig Dug Dig Dug

NES: Mappy Mappy

NES: Lode Runner Lode Runner

NES: Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!! Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!

NES: Galaga Galaga

NES: Donkey Kong Donkey Kong

NES: The Legend of Zelda The Legend of Zelda

NES: Circus Charlie Circus Charlie

NES: Mario Bros. Mario Bros.

NES: Road Fighter Road Fighter

NES: Excitebike Excitebike

NES: Arkanoid Arkanoid

NES: Kung-Fu Master Kung-Fu Master

NES: Hudson's Adventure Island Hudson's Adventure Island


 

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