Socrates was a series of DOS chess programs by Don Dailey and Larry Kaufman. Socrates was initially the 8086 assembly port of the C program Heuristic Alpha, developed for Julio Kaplan's company Heuristic Software. It had its tournament debut at the ACM 1991. While the C program evolved to Mini and Titan aka Socrates II, winner of the ACM 1993 on a 486 PC ahead of Cray Blitz and HiTech, later sold to Electronic Arts as engine of the mass-market entry Kasparov's Gambit, its 32-bit x86 assembly counterpart Socrates, the best program at Harvard Cup 1992 with 3 out of 5, beating grandmasters Patrick Wolff, Maxim Dlugy and John Fedorowicz, incorporated knowledge from Titan and evolved to Socrates 3.0, finally released and commercially market in 1993 not by Heuristic Software, but through a company called MDI. Since Larry Kaufman mentioned in 1992 that Null Move Pruning doubles the speed of the search, NMP was likely also implemented in Socrates.
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This version of Socrates was designed for personal computers with operating system MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System),
which was operating system developed by Microsoft in 1981. It was the most widely-used operating system in the first half of the 1990s. MS-DOS was supplied
with most of the IBM computers that purchased a license from Microsoft. After 1995, it was pushed out by a graphically more advanced system - Windows and
its development was ceased in 2000. At the
time of its greatest fame, several thousand games designed specifically for computers with this system were created. Today, its development is no longer continue
and for emulation the free DOSBox emulator is most often used. More information about MS-DOS operating system can be found
Available online emulators:
5 different online emulators are available for Socrates. These emulators differ not only in the technology they use to emulate old games, but also in support of various game controllers, multiplayer mode, mobile phone touchscreen, emulation speed, absence or presence of embedded ads and in many other parameters. For
maximum gaming enjoyment, it's important to choose the right emulator, because on each PC and in different Internet browsers, the individual emulators behave differently. The basic
features of each emulator available for this game Socrates are summarized in the following table:
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